2014
21
3
0
0
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3496.html
Effect of a New Wet Soot Absorber on Soot Removal of a Diesel Engine
Effect of a New Wet Soot Absorber on Soot Removal of a Diesel Engine
2
2
In the following investigation, a submerged-type Wet Soot Absorber (WSA) is studied and its capability on reducing the soot emission level of a four cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine is evaluated. The WSA can provide a large contact area between water and exhaust flow which increases the soot capturing probability. Hence, the system can be more compact and suitable for vehicle engines applications. The ECE-R49 standard test is followed to assess the effect of the WSA on the engine performance and soot emission. The experiments revealed that the best soot removal efficiency of 70% is attained in the full-load engine operating conditions due to the high momentum of exhaust gas flow entering to the chamber of the unit which can provide more flow penetration into the water. Also, further bubble break-up in high gas velocity results in a larger liquid-gas interface and contributes to better soot removal. The minor negative effects of utilizing the WSA on the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is also compared with those of conventional DPFs and the aspects of WSA advantages are discussed.
2
In the following investigation, a submerged-type Wet Soot Absorber (WSA) is studied and its capability on reducing the soot emission level of a four cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine is evaluated. The WSA can provide a large contact area between water and exhaust flow which increases the soot capturing probability. Hence, the system can be more compact and suitable for vehicle engines applications. The ECE-R49 standard test is followed to assess the effect of the WSA on the engine performance and soot emission. The experiments revealed that the best soot removal efficiency of 70% is attained in the full-load engine operating conditions due to the high momentum of exhaust gas flow entering to the chamber of the unit which can provide more flow penetration into the water. Also, further bubble break-up in high gas velocity results in a larger liquid-gas interface and contributes to better soot removal. The minor negative effects of utilizing the WSA on the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is also compared with those of conventional DPFs and the aspects of WSA advantages are discussed.
569
577
M.
Ghazikhani
M.
Ghazikhani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
m_ghazikhani@yahoo.com
M. E.
Feyz
M. E.
Feyz
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
I.
Khazaee
I.
Khazaee
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam, Iran
Iran
imankhazaee@yahoo.com
Ali
Ghazikhani
Ali
Ghazikhani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
M. J.
Mahmoudzadeh Akherat
M. J.
Mahmoudzadeh Akherat
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
Wet Soot Absorber
Diesel Particulate Matter
bsfc
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3497.html
Viscoelastic potential flow analysis of stability of a cylindrical jet
Viscoelastic potential flow analysis of stability of a cylindrical jet
2
2
A linear analysis of the temporal instability of a viscoelastic liquid jet with axisymmetric and asymmetric disturbances moving in an infinite viscous fluid is investigated. The cause of the instability in the liquid jet is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to the velocity difference and capillary instability due to surface tension. The dispersion relation for viscoelastic potential flow is cubic in nature.The stability analysis shows that viscoelastic liquid jets are less unstable than inviscid jets and more unstable than viscous liquid jets for both axisymmetric and asymmetric disturbances. Stability analysis has been made in terms of various parameters such as Weber number, Reynolds number, Deborah number etc.
2
A linear analysis of the temporal instability of a viscoelastic liquid jet with axisymmetric and asymmetric disturbances moving in an infinite viscous fluid is investigated. The cause of the instability in the liquid jet is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to the velocity difference and capillary instability due to surface tension. The dispersion relation for viscoelastic potential flow is cubic in nature.The stability analysis shows that viscoelastic liquid jets are less unstable than inviscid jets and more unstable than viscous liquid jets for both axisymmetric and asymmetric disturbances. Stability analysis has been made in terms of various parameters such as Weber number, Reynolds number, Deborah number etc.
578
586
Mukesh Kumar
Awasthi
Mukesh Kumar
Awasthi
Department of Mathematics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, 248007, India
Iran
mukeshiitr.kumar@gmail.com
Rishi
Asthana
Rishi
Asthana
Department of Mathematics, Galgotia University, Greater Noida, 201306, India
Iran
rasthana4@gmail.com
G. S.
Agrawal
G. S.
Agrawal
Institute of Computer Application, Manglayatan University, Aligarh, 202145, India
Iran
gsa45fma@gmail.com
Viscoelastic potential flow
Cylindrical jet
Maxwell type fluid
Interfacial flows, viscous stresses
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3498.html
Investigation of the dynamic behavior of thick piezoelectric cylinders
Investigation of the dynamic behavior of thick piezoelectric cylinders
2
2
A theoretical solution of the mechanical behavior of thick piezoelectric cylinders subjected to dynamic pressures is presented in this paper. The five governing equations in terms of resultant forces and resultant moments with respect to basic displacement vector components , and are used. Thefirst-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed to consider the effects of shear forces on the shell structure. The effects oftransverse shear deformation and rotary inertiaare included into the analysis. The formulation isbased on the thick-shellequations. Navier-type solutions are obtained and used for simply supported circular cylindrical shells. Finally, the Newmark family of methods is used to numerically time integration of the system of coupled second order ODEs. Results obtained with the present analysis are found to be in good agreement with those available in the literature. The results of this paper can serve as a reference for future study in the design of smart engineering structures.
2
A theoretical solution of the mechanical behavior of thick piezoelectric cylinders subjected to dynamic pressures is presented in this paper. The five governing equations in terms of resultant forces and resultant moments with respect to basic displacement vector components , and are used. Thefirst-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed to consider the effects of shear forces on the shell structure. The effects oftransverse shear deformation and rotary inertiaare included into the analysis. The formulation isbased on the thick-shellequations. Navier-type solutions are obtained and used for simply supported circular cylindrical shells. Finally, the Newmark family of methods is used to numerically time integration of the system of coupled second order ODEs. Results obtained with the present analysis are found to be in good agreement with those available in the literature. The results of this paper can serve as a reference for future study in the design of smart engineering structures.
587
599
H.
Rajabi
H.
Rajabi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Iran
A.
Darvizeh
A.
Darvizeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali, Iran
Iran
adarvizeh@guilan.ac.ir
Theoretical solution
piezoelectric shell
FSDT
Navier solution
Dynamic load
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3499.html
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Resistance of a Catamaran Vessel with Non-Parallel Demihulls
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Resistance of a Catamaran Vessel with Non-Parallel Demihulls
2
2
In common catamaran vessels, demihulls are parallel to each other. In this paper, the total resistance of a catamaran vessel with non-parallel demihulls is investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out at different Separation Ratios (S.R.) that is the ratio of fore to aft separation of the catamaran demihulls; and also in two ratios of Length to Separation in amidships (L/Sm). FLUENT solver based on finite volume method (FVM) was used for numerical solution. Applying VOF model, free surface around catamaran vessel and total resistance is calculated and compared with experimental results. Finally, frictional resistance of catamaran from ITTC 1957 correlation line is calculated and compared with CFD frictional resistance. The results show that, non-parallel demihulls cause the total resistance to increase at Froude numbers below 0.8 and decrease resistance at Froude Numbers over 0.8. In the numerical part, at low Froude numbers, numerical results have an error up to 10% relative to model test results, but error increases at high Froude numbers up to 25%.
2
In common catamaran vessels, demihulls are parallel to each other. In this paper, the total resistance of a catamaran vessel with non-parallel demihulls is investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out at different Separation Ratios (S.R.) that is the ratio of fore to aft separation of the catamaran demihulls; and also in two ratios of Length to Separation in amidships (L/Sm). FLUENT solver based on finite volume method (FVM) was used for numerical solution. Applying VOF model, free surface around catamaran vessel and total resistance is calculated and compared with experimental results. Finally, frictional resistance of catamaran from ITTC 1957 correlation line is calculated and compared with CFD frictional resistance. The results show that, non-parallel demihulls cause the total resistance to increase at Froude numbers below 0.8 and decrease resistance at Froude Numbers over 0.8. In the numerical part, at low Froude numbers, numerical results have an error up to 10% relative to model test results, but error increases at high Froude numbers up to 25%.
600
608
A.
Ebrahimi
A.
Ebrahimi
Deptartment of Marine Engineering, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran
Iran
ab_ebrahimi@cmu.ac.ir
M.
Rad
M.
Rad
Deptartment of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
rad@sharif.edu
A.
Hajilouy
A.
Hajilouy
Deptartment of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hajilouy@sharif.edu
Catamaran Vessel
Resistance
Non-Parallel demihulls
Model experiments
numerical investigation
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3500.html
Prediction of All-Steel CNG Cylinders Fracture in Impact by Using Damage Mechanics Approach
Prediction of All-Steel CNG Cylinders Fracture in Impact by Using Damage Mechanics Approach
2
2
In this paper damage mechanics approach is used to investigate the effect of crash and damage caused by impact in steel cylinder filled by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The Canadian Standard Association (CSA) for CNG cylinders is used as a damage detection criterion and cylinders ability to reuse. Johnson-Cook damage model is used to compute the cylinder failures. Simulations are carried out in different impact directions, and the effect of cylinder internal pressure, collision velocity and the fall height are analyzed. Also failures due to collision for various situations are studied and discussed. Investigations for cases including crash and drop tests showed that the maximum damage in cylinder is created for the case of normal impact and by changing the impact direction from normal to side, the amount of damage will be decreased. Also by eliminating failed elements and comparing the damage depth caused by collision using the CSA standard, it was observed that in the most cases of normal accident and drop tests, cylinders have been damaged and lose its ability to use. However, in side impact cases cylinder is intact or can be reused after repairing.
2
In this paper damage mechanics approach is used to investigate the effect of crash and damage caused by impact in steel cylinder filled by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The Canadian Standard Association (CSA) for CNG cylinders is used as a damage detection criterion and cylinders ability to reuse. Johnson-Cook damage model is used to compute the cylinder failures. Simulations are carried out in different impact directions, and the effect of cylinder internal pressure, collision velocity and the fall height are analyzed. Also failures due to collision for various situations are studied and discussed. Investigations for cases including crash and drop tests showed that the maximum damage in cylinder is created for the case of normal impact and by changing the impact direction from normal to side, the amount of damage will be decreased. Also by eliminating failed elements and comparing the damage depth caused by collision using the CSA standard, it was observed that in the most cases of normal accident and drop tests, cylinders have been damaged and lose its ability to use. However, in side impact cases cylinder is intact or can be reused after repairing.
609
619
M.
Yazdani Ariatape
M.
Yazdani Ariatape
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Iran
m.yazdaniariatape@me.iut.ac.ir
M.
Mashayekhi
M.
Mashayekhi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Iran
mashayekhi@cc.iut.ac.ir
S.
Ziaei-Rad
S.
Ziaei-Rad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Iran
szrad@cc.iut.ac.ir
All-Steel CNG Cylinder
Damage Mechanics
Fracture
impact
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3501.html
Effects of non-uniform wall properties on stress distribution in abdominal aortic aneurysm, considering nonlinear constitutive equations
Effects of non-uniform wall properties on stress distribution in abdominal aortic aneurysm, considering nonlinear constitutive equations
2
2
In this study, stress distribution in aneurismal wall of the abdominal aortic is addressed. Full equilibrium equations derived from the thick-wall theory are solved using the well-known finite-element method (FEM). Nine-node quadratic rectangular plane elements are employed for the spatial discretization of the computational domain. Non-linear constitutive equations and non-uniform wall properties are taken into consideration. The results of this investigation show that in addition to the aneurysm size, some other factors may significantly affect the stress distribution in aneurismal wall. Factors such as wall thickness, blood pressure and longitudinal tension have been identified for both uniform and non-uniform wall properties. Having numerically simulated different cases, it is demonstrated that the longitudinal stress is the maximum stress in the wall and is not significantly affected by the uniformity of the wall stiffness.
2
In this study, stress distribution in aneurismal wall of the abdominal aortic is addressed. Full equilibrium equations derived from the thick-wall theory are solved using the well-known finite-element method (FEM). Nine-node quadratic rectangular plane elements are employed for the spatial discretization of the computational domain. Non-linear constitutive equations and non-uniform wall properties are taken into consideration. The results of this investigation show that in addition to the aneurysm size, some other factors may significantly affect the stress distribution in aneurismal wall. Factors such as wall thickness, blood pressure and longitudinal tension have been identified for both uniform and non-uniform wall properties. Having numerically simulated different cases, it is demonstrated that the longitudinal stress is the maximum stress in the wall and is not significantly affected by the uniformity of the wall stiffness.
620
627
G. R.
Zendehbudi
G. R.
Zendehbudi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
Iran
zendehbudi@yu.ac.ir
Finite Element Method
Aneurysm rupture
Aneurismal wall
Thick-wall theory
Blood pressure, Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Non-linear constitutive equation
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3502.html
Delay-dependent Passive Analysis and Control for Interval Stochastic Time-delay Systems
Delay-dependent Passive Analysis and Control for Interval Stochastic Time-delay Systems
2
2
This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent passive analysis and control for interval stochastic time-delay systems. The system matrices are assumed to be uncertain within given intervals, the time delay is a time-varying continousfunction belonging to a given range, and the stochastic perturbation is in the form of a Brownian motion. By using ItÔ’s differential formula and the Lyapunov stability theory, delay-dependent stochastic passive control criteria are proposed without ignoring any useful terms by considering the information of the lower bound and upper bound for the time delay. Based on the criteria obtained, a delay-dependent passive controller that ensures stochastic passivity of the closed-loop system is presented. Then, the controller gain is characterized in terms of LMIs, which can be easily checked by resorting to available software packages. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
2
This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent passive analysis and control for interval stochastic time-delay systems. The system matrices are assumed to be uncertain within given intervals, the time delay is a time-varying continousfunction belonging to a given range, and the stochastic perturbation is in the form of a Brownian motion. By using ItÔ’s differential formula and the Lyapunov stability theory, delay-dependent stochastic passive control criteria are proposed without ignoring any useful terms by considering the information of the lower bound and upper bound for the time delay. Based on the criteria obtained, a delay-dependent passive controller that ensures stochastic passivity of the closed-loop system is presented. Then, the controller gain is characterized in terms of LMIs, which can be easily checked by resorting to available software packages. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
628
646
Cheng
Wang
Cheng
Wang
School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan, Hubei 430074, P. R. China
Iran
Zhongwen
Chen
Zhongwen
Chen
Office of Human resources, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang438000, Hubei Province, P. R. China
Iran
zhongwenchen@foxmail.com
Genyu
Chen
Genyu
Chen
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan Province, P. R. China
Iran
interval systems
time-delay
stochastic
passivity
linear matrix inequality (LMI
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3503.html
Thermally induced vibration of an electro-statically deflected functionally graded micro-beam considering thermo-elastic coupling effect
Thermally induced vibration of an electro-statically deflected functionally graded micro-beam considering thermo-elastic coupling effect
2
2
This study investigates the dynamic response of an electrostatically deflected capacitive cantilever functionally graded (FG) micro-beam subjected to a harmonically varying thermal load, which is incited vibration due to different material properties of the beam constituents and thermo-elastic coupling effect. The FG beam is made of mixture of metal and ceramic where the material properties vary continuously through the thickness according to an exponential distribution law (E-FGM).Assuming the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the infinite speed of heat transportation, the equation of motion and the conventional coupled energy equation are derived. Applying Galerkin formulation and then using Rung-kutta method as an efficient numerical tool,these equations are simultaneously solved. Changing the ceramic constituent percentage of the bottom surface, five different types of FGM micro-beams are investigated and results are presented for all types.Numerical results are shown the response of a cantilever FG micro-beam subjected to a harmonically varying temperature input. Moreover, the influences of the beam ceramic constituent percentage on the stability, vibrational behavior and natural frequency are presented.
2
This study investigates the dynamic response of an electrostatically deflected capacitive cantilever functionally graded (FG) micro-beam subjected to a harmonically varying thermal load, which is incited vibration due to different material properties of the beam constituents and thermo-elastic coupling effect. The FG beam is made of mixture of metal and ceramic where the material properties vary continuously through the thickness according to an exponential distribution law (E-FGM).Assuming the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the infinite speed of heat transportation, the equation of motion and the conventional coupled energy equation are derived. Applying Galerkin formulation and then using Rung-kutta method as an efficient numerical tool,these equations are simultaneously solved. Changing the ceramic constituent percentage of the bottom surface, five different types of FGM micro-beams are investigated and results are presented for all types.Numerical results are shown the response of a cantilever FG micro-beam subjected to a harmonically varying temperature input. Moreover, the influences of the beam ceramic constituent percentage on the stability, vibrational behavior and natural frequency are presented.
647
662
Ilgar
Jafarsadeghi-pournaki
Ilgar
Jafarsadeghi-pournaki
Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Iran
Ghader
Rezazadeh
Ghader
Rezazadeh
Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Iran
grezazadeh44@yahoo.com
Mohammadreza
Zamanzadeh
Mohammadreza
Zamanzadeh
Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Iran
eng.zamanzadeh@gmail.com
Rasool
Shabani
Rasool
Shabani
Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
Iran
r.shabani@urmia.ac.ir
Thermally induced vibration
FGM
thermo-elastic coupling
electrostatic load
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3504.html
Design and Programming a 3D Simulator and Controlling Graphical User Interface of ICaSbot, A Cable Suspended Robot
Design and Programming a 3D Simulator and Controlling Graphical User Interface of ICaSbot, A Cable Suspended Robot
2
2
This paper presents a graphical user interface (GUI) and simulator which is designed for a cable suspended robot (ICaSbot), in LabVIEW environment. This interface is designed to be used for training the users in a virtual environment and also controlling the cable robot in an on-line way. The proposed GUI consists of kinematics, dynamics and on-line control sections. All of the mentioned sections are involved in the simulator of the robot employed to display the motion of the end-effector in a virtual environment. Using the proposed GUI, the user is able to exert the desired commands and study the end–effector motion and all of its kinematics and kinetics output in a virtual environment. Afterward this motion can be applied to the real robot in the part called “hardware control” while six different control methodology can be selected. The controlling commands such as driving the motors and monitoring the actual data which are received from the sensors can be managed in this part of GUI. The efficiency and applicability of the designed GUI is proved by conducting some ISO and experimental tests on the cable robot of IUST called ICaSbot and comparing the results with simulation including of repeatability and accuracy tests and tracking a predefined trajectory.
2
This paper presents a graphical user interface (GUI) and simulator which is designed for a cable suspended robot (ICaSbot), in LabVIEW environment. This interface is designed to be used for training the users in a virtual environment and also controlling the cable robot in an on-line way. The proposed GUI consists of kinematics, dynamics and on-line control sections. All of the mentioned sections are involved in the simulator of the robot employed to display the motion of the end-effector in a virtual environment. Using the proposed GUI, the user is able to exert the desired commands and study the end–effector motion and all of its kinematics and kinetics output in a virtual environment. Afterward this motion can be applied to the real robot in the part called “hardware control” while six different control methodology can be selected. The controlling commands such as driving the motors and monitoring the actual data which are received from the sensors can be managed in this part of GUI. The efficiency and applicability of the designed GUI is proved by conducting some ISO and experimental tests on the cable robot of IUST called ICaSbot and comparing the results with simulation including of repeatability and accuracy tests and tracking a predefined trajectory.
663
681
M.
H. Korayem
M.
H. Korayem
Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
hkorayem@iust.ac.ir
S.M.
Maddah
S.M.
Maddah
Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
M.
Taherifar
M.
Taherifar
Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
H.
Tourajizadeh
H.
Tourajizadeh
Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
Cable Robot
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
simulator
Hardware Control
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/3505.html
Effects of Joule heating and thermophoresis on the stretched flow with convective boundary condition
Effects of Joule heating and thermophoresis on the stretched flow with convective boundary condition
2
2
Effects of heat and mass transfer on the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Maxwell fluid over a stretching surface are discussed. Stretching surface satisfies the convective boundary conditions. In addition, the analysis has been carried out in the presence of Joule heating, thermal radiation and thermophoresis. Governing partial differential equations are first reduced into the ordinary differential equations and then computed for the series solutions. Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented and examined.
2
Effects of heat and mass transfer on the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Maxwell fluid over a stretching surface are discussed. Stretching surface satisfies the convective boundary conditions. In addition, the analysis has been carried out in the presence of Joule heating, thermal radiation and thermophoresis. Governing partial differential equations are first reduced into the ordinary differential equations and then computed for the series solutions. Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented and examined.
682
692
T.
Hayat
T.
Hayat
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Iran
M.
Waqas
M.
Waqas
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Iran
S. A.
Shehzad
S. A.
Shehzad
Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Iran
ali_qau70@yahoo.com
A.
Alsaedi
A.
Alsaedi
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Iran
thermal radiation
Maxwell fluid
Joule heating
Thermophoresis
Stretching surface