2019
26
0
0
297
1

Three decades of the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCEUA) optimization algorithm: Review and applications
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21500.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21500
1
The Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCEUA) method developed at the University of Arizona is a global optimization algorithm, initially developed by [1] for the calibrationof conceptual rainfallrunoff (CRR) models. SCEUA searches for the global optimumof a function by evolving clusters of samples drawn from the parameter space, via a systematiccompetitive evolutionary process. Being a general purpose global optimization algorithm, it has found widespread applications across a diverse range of science and engineering fields. Here, we recount the history of the development of the SCEUA algorithm and its later advancements. We also present a survey of illustrative applications of the SCEUA algorithm and discuss its extensions to multiobjective problems and touncertainty assessment. Finally, we suggest potential directions for future investigation.
0

2015
2031


M.
Rahnamay Naeini
Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) & Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
United States
rahnamam@uci.edu


B.
Analui
Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) & Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
United States
bita.analui@uci.edu


H.V.
Gupta
Department of Hydrology & Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
United States


Q.
Duan
Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
China


S.
Sorooshian
Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) & Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
United States
soroosh@uci.edu
optimization
Hydrology
Shuffled Complex Evolution
SCEUA
Water Resources
Evolutionary algorithm
Multiobjective
Uncertainty assessment
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Calibration of a semidistributed hydrologic model for streamow estimation along a river system", Journal of Hydrology, 298(14), pp. 112135 (2004). 134. Behrangi, A., Khakbaz, B., Jaw, T.C., et al. Hydrologic evaluation of satellite precipitation products over a midsize basin", Journal of Hydrology, 397(3 4), pp. 225237 (2011). 135. Gan, T.Y. and Biftu, G.F. Automatic calibration of conceptual rainfallruno_ models: Optimization algorithms, catchment conditions, and model structure", Water Resources Research, 32(12), pp. 3513 3524 (1996). 136. Gusev Y.M. and Nasonova, O. The land surface parameterization scheme swap: Description and partial validation", Global and Planetary Change, 19(14), pp. 6386 (1998). 137. Nasonova, O.N., Gusev, Y.M., and Kovalev, Y.E. Investigating the ability of a land surface model to simulate streamow with the accuracy of hydrological models: A case study using MOPEX materials", Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10(5), pp. 11281150 (2009). 138. Gusev, E., Nasonova, O.N., and Dzhogan, L.Y. Physically based modeling of manyyear dynamics of daily streamow and snow water equivalent in the lena R. basin", Water Resources, 43(1), pp. 2132 (2016). 139. Nasonova, O.N., Gusev, Y.M., Volodin, E.M., et al. Application of the land surface model SWAP and global climate model INMCM4.0 for projecting runo_ of northern Russian rivers. 1. Historical simulations", Water Resources, 45(2), pp. 7384 (2018). 140. Gusev, E., Nasonova, O.N., Kovalev, E., et al. Modelling water balance components of river basins located in di_erent regions of the globe", Water Resources, 45(2), pp. 5364 (2018). 141. Eckhardt, K. and Arnold, J. Automatic calibration of a distributed catchment model", Journal of Hydrology, 251(12), pp. 103109 (2001). 142. Van Liew, M.W., Veith, T.L., Bosch, D.D., et al. Suitability of SWAT for the conservation e_ects assessment project: Comparison on USDA agricultural research service watersheds", Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 12(2), pp. 173189 (2007). M. Rahnamay Naeini et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2015{2031 2029 143. Green, C. and Van Griensven, A. Autocalibration in hydrologic modeling: Using SWAT2005 in smallscale watersheds", Environmental Modelling & Software, 23(4), pp. 422434 (2008). 144. Yu, D., Xie, P., Dong, X., et al. Improvement of the SWAT model for eventbased ood simulation on a subdaily timescale", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22(9), pp. 50015019 (2018). 145. Rouhani, H. and Leconte, R. A methodological framework to assess PMP and PMF in snowdominated watersheds under changing climate conditions  A case study of three watersheds in Qu_ebec (Canada)", Journal of Hydrology, 561, pp. 796809 (2018). 146. Chiew, F., Kirono, D., Kent, D., et al. Comparison of runo_ modelled using rainfall from di_erent downscaling methods for historical and future climates", Journal of Hydrology, 387(12), pp. 1023 (2010). 147. Vaze, J., Post, D., Chiew, F., et al. Conceptual rainfallruno_ model performance with di_erent spatial rainfall inputs", Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12(5), pp. 11001112 (2011). 148. Duan, D. and Mei, Y. Comparison of meteorological, hydrological and agricultural drought responses to climate change and uncertainty assessment", Water Resources Management, 28(14), pp. 50395054 (2014). 149. Khan, U., Ajami, H., Tuteja, N.K., et al. Catchment scale simulations of soil moisture dynamics using an equivalent crosssection based hydrological modelling approach", Journal of Hydrology, 564, pp. 944966 (2018). 150. Potter, N., Ekstrom, M., Chiew, F., et al. Changesignal impacts in downscaled data and its inuence on hydroclimate projections", Journal of Hydrology, 564, pp. 1225 (2018). 151. Rossman, L.A. Storm water management model user's manual", version 5.0. Cincinnati: National Risk Management Research Laboratory, O_ce of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency (2010). 152. Lee, S. and Kang, T. Analysis of constrained optimization problems by the SCEUA with an adaptive penalty function", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 30(3), p. 04015035 (2015). 153. Russwurm, I.L., Johannessen, B.G., Gragne, A.S., et al. Modelling green roof detention performance in cold climates", EPiC Series in Engineering, Easy Chair, 3, pp. 18041813 (2018). 154. Hamouz, V. and Muthanna, T.M. Modelling of green and grey roofs in cold climates using EPA's storm water management model", In International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, pp. 385 391, Springer (2018). 155. Johannessen, B.G., Hamouz, V., Gragne, A.S., et al. The transferability of SWMM model parameters between green roofs with similar buildup", Journal of Hydrology, 569, pp. 816828 (2019). 156. 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Streamow forecasts from WRF precipitation for ood early warning in mountain tropical areas", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22(1), pp. 853870 (2018). 161. Hay, L., Clark, M., Pagowski, M., et al. Oneway coupling of an atmospheric and a hydrologic model in Colorado", Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7(4), pp. 569589 (2006). 162. Viger, R.J., Hay, L.E., Markstrom, S.L., et al. Hydrologic e_ects of urbanization and climate change on the int river basin, Georgia", Earth Interactions, 15(20), pp. 125 (2011). 163. Ott, I., Duethmann, D., Liebert, J., et al. Highresolution climate change impact analysis on mediumsized river catchments in Germany: an ensemble assessment", Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14(4), pp. 11751193 (2013). 164. Mendoza, P.A., Clark, M.P., Mizukami, N., et al. E_ects of hydrologic model choice and calibration on the portrayal of climate change impacts", Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16(2), pp. 762780 (2015). 165. Abdulla, F.A., Lettenmaier, D.P., Wood, E.F., et al. Application of a macroscale hydrologic model to estimate the water balance of the ArkansasRed river basin", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 101(D3), pp. 74497459 (1996). 166. Wooldridge, S., Kalma, J.D., and Walker, J.P. Importance of soil moisture measurements for inferring parameters in hydrologic models of lowyielding ephemeral catchments", Environmental Modelling & Software, 18(1), pp. 3548 (2003). 167. Troy, T.J., Wood, E.F., and She_eld, J. An e_cient calibration method for continentalscale land surface modeling", Water Resources Research, 44(9) (2008). 168. She_eld, J., Wood, E.F., Chaney, N., et al. A drought monitoring and forecasting system for Sub Sahara African water resources and food security", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(6), pp. 861882 (2014). 2030 M. Rahnamay Naeini et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2015{2031 169. Mizukami, N., Clark, M.P., Newman, A.J., et al. Towards seamless largedomain parameter estimation for hydrologic models", Water Resources Research, 53(9), pp. 80208040 (2017). 170. Gan, T.Y., Dlamini, E.M., and Biftu, G.F. E_ects of model complexity and structure, data quality, and objective functions on hydrologic modeling", Journal of Hydrology, 192(14), pp. 81103 (1997). 171. Guo, W., Wang, C., Zeng, X., et al. Subgrid parameterization of the soil moisture storage capacity for a distributed rainfallruno_ model", Water, 7(6), pp. 26912706 (2015). 172. Yuan, F., Zhang, L., Win, K., et al. Assessment of GPM and TRMM multisatellite precipitation products in streamow simulations in a datasparse mountainous watershed in Myanmar", Remote Sensing, 9(3), p. 302 (2017). 173. Zeng, Q., Chen, H., Xu, C.Y., et al. The e_ect of rain gauge density and distribution on runo_ simulation using a lumped hydrological modelling approach", Journalof Hydrology, 563, pp. 106122 (2018).##]
1

Profile and wavefront optimization by metaheuristic algorithms for efficient finite element analysis
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_20163.html
10.24200/sci.2018.20163
1
For an efficient solution of the equations arising from finite element analysis, the stiffness matrix of the model should be structured. This can be done by reducing the profile or wavefront of the corresponding graph matrix of the structure depending on whether skyline or frontal method being used, respectively. One of the efficient methods to achieve this goal is the use of the method of King, extended by Sloan. In this paper the coefficients of the priority function utilized in the generalized Sloan’s method are optimized using the recently developed metaheuristic algorithm, socalled vibrating particles system. The results are compared to those of other metaheuristic algorithms consisting of the particle swarm optimization, colliding bodies optimization, enhanced colliding bodies optimization, and tug of war optimization. These metaheuristics, are used for optimum nodal numbering of the graph models of the finite element meshes to reduce the profile and wavefront of the corresponding sparse matrices. Comparison of the results achieved by these metaheuristic algorithms and those of the King and Sloan, demonstrates the efficiency of the new metaheuristic utilized for profile and wavefront optimization.
0

2032
2046


A.
Kaveh
Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, P.O. Box 1684613114, Iran
Iran
kaveh@iust.ac.ir


Sh.
Bijari
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, P.O. Box 1684613114, Iran
Iran
Profile and wavefront reduction
ordering
colliding bodies optimization (CBO)
enhanced colliding bodies optimization (ECBO)
tug of war optimization (TWO)
vibrating particles system (VPS)
[1. Kaveh, A. Applications of topology and matroid theory to the analysis of structures", Ph.D. Thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London University, UK (1974). 2. Kaveh, A., Structural Mechanics: Graph and Matrix Methods, Research Studies Press, 3rd edition, Somerset, UK (2004). 3. Kaveh, A., Optimal Structural Analysis, John Wiley, 2nd Edn., Chichester, UK (2006). 4. Papademetrious, C.H. The NPcompleteness of bandwidth minimization problem", Comput. J., 16, pp. 177192 (1976). 5. Gibbs, N.E., Poole, W.G., and Stockmeyer, P.K. An algorithm for reducing the bandwidth and pro_le of a sparse matrix", SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 12, pp. 236 250 (1976). 6. Cuthill, E. and McKee, J. Reducing the bandwidth of sparse symmetric matrices", Proceedings of the 24th National Conference ACM, Bradon System Press, NJ, pp. 157172 (1969). 7. Bernardes, J.A.B. and Oliveira, S.L.G.D. A systematic review of heuristics for pro_le reduction of symmetric matrices", Procd. Comput. Sci., 51, pp. 221230 (2015). 8. King, I.P. An automatic reordering scheme for simultaneous equations derived from network systems", Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 2, pp. 523533 (1970). 9. Kaveh, A. and Behzadi, A.M. An e_cient algorithm for nodal ordering of networks", Iran. J. Sci. Technol., Transactions in Civil Engineering, 11, pp. 1118 (1987). 10. Kaveh, A. and Roosta, G.R. Comparative study of _nite element nodal ordering methods", Eng. J., 20(1&2), pp. 8696 (1998). 11. Koohestani, B. and Poli, R. Addressing the envelope reduction of sparse matrices using a genetic programming system", Comput. Optimiz. Appl., 60, pp. 789 814 (2014). 12. Kaveh, A., Advances in Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimal Design of Structures, 2nd Edn., Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (2017). 13. Kaveh, A. and Mahdavi, V.R. Colliding bodies optimization: A novel metaheuristic method", Comput. Struct., 139, pp. 1827 (2014). 14. Kaveh, A. and Ilchi Ghazaan, M. Enhanced colliding bodies optimization for design problems with continuous and discrete variables", Adv. Eng. Softw., 77, pp. 6675 (2014). 15. Kaveh, A. and Zolghadr, A. A novel metaheuristic algorithm: tug of war optimization", Int. J. Optim. Civil Eng., 6, pp. 469492 (2016). 16. Kaveh, A. and Ilchi Ghazaan, M. A new metaheuristic algorithm: vibrating particles system", Sci. Iran., 24(2), pp. 551566 (2017). 17. Sloan, S.W. An algorithm for pro_le and wavefront reduction of sparse matrices", Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 23, pp. 16931704 (1986). 18. Kaveh, A. and Rahimi Bondarabdy, H.A. A hybrid method for _nite element ordering", Comput. Struct., 80(34), pp. 219225 (2002). 19. Rahimi Bondarabady, H.A., and Kaveh, A. Nodal ordering using graph theory and a genetic algorithm", Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 40(910), pp. 12711280 (2004). 20. Kaveh, A. and Shara_, P. Optimal priority functions for pro_le reduction using ant colony optimization", Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 44, pp. 131138 (2008). 21. Kaveh, A. and Shara_, P. Ordering for bandwidth and pro_le minimization problems via charged system search algorithm", Iran. J. Sci. Technol., Transactions in Civil Engineering, 36(C1), pp. 3952 (2012). 22. Kaveh, A. and Bijari, Sh. Bandwidth, pro_le and wavefront optimization using PSO, CBO, ECBO and TWO algorithms", Iran. J. Sci. Technol., Transactions in Civil Engineering, 41(1), pp. 112 (2017). 23. Everstine, G.C. A comparison of three resequencing algorithms for the reduction of matrix pro_le and wavefront", Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 14(6), pp. 837853 (1979).##]
1

Instantaneous and Equilibrium Responses of the Brain Tissue by Stress Relaxation and QuasiLinear Viscoelasticity Theory
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21314.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21314
1
Human brain and brainstem tissues have viscoelastic characteristics and their behaviours are functions of strains, as well as strain rates. Determination of the equilibrium and instantaneous stresses happening at low and high strain rates provide insights into a better understanding of the behaviour of such tissues. In this manuscript we present the results of a series of stress relaxation tests, at six different values of strains conducted on porcine brainstem tissue samples to indirectly measure the equilibrium and instantaneous stresses. The equilibrium stresses at low strain rates are measured from longterm responses of the stress relaxation test. The instantaneous stresses at high strain rates are determined using QuasiLinear Viscoelasticity (QLV) theory at six strains. The results show that the instantaneous stresses are much larger (almost 11 times) than the equilibrium stresses and across all the strains. It can be concluded that the instantaneous response can be reasonably estimated from the longterm response which can be easily measured experimentally. The experimental results also show that the reduced relaxation moduli, estimated from the QLV theory, vary for the six strains tested.
0

2047
2056


M.
HosseiniFarid
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 581086050, USA.
United States


A.
Rezaei
Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, S.W., Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
United States


A.
Eslaminejad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 581086050, USA.
United States


M.
Ramzanpour
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 581086050, USA.
United States


M.
Ziejewski
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 581086050, USA.
United States


G.
Karami
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 581086050, USA.
United States
g.karami@ndsu.edu
QuasiLinear Viscoelasticity Theory
brain response
brainstem tissue
stress relaxation test
instantaneous response
long term stress
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Fifty years of brain tissue mechanical testing: from in vitro to in vivo investigations", Biorheology, 47(5 6), pp. 255276 (2010). 19. Zhao, H., Yin, Z., Li, K., Liao, Z., Xiang, H., and Zhu, F. Mechanical characterization of immature porcine brainstem in tension at dynamic strain rates", Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, 22, p. 6 (2016). 20. Moran, R., Smith, J.H., and Garc__a, J.J. Fitted hyperelastic parameters for human brain tissue from M. HosseiniFarid et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2047{2056 2055 reported tension, compression, and shear tests", Journal of Biomechanics, 47(15), pp. 37623766 (2014). 21. Destrade, M., Gilchrist, M., Murphy, J.G., Rashid, B., and Saccomandi, G. Extreme softness of brain matter in simple shear", International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, 75, pp. 5458 (2015). 22. El Sayed, T., Mota, A., Feraternali, F., and Ortiz, M. A variational constitutive model for soft biological tissues", Journal of Biomechanics, 41, pp. 14581466 (2008). 23. Prevost, T.P., Balakrishnan, A., Suresh, S., and Socrate, S. Biomechanics of brain tissue", Acta Biomaterialia, 7(1), pp. 8395 (2011). 24. Kohandel, M., Sivaloganathan, S., Tenti, G., and Drake, J.M. The constitutive properties of the brain parenchyma Part 1. Strain energy approach", Medical Engineering & Physics, 28, pp. 449454 (2006). 25. Voyiadjis, G.Z. and SamadiDooki, A. Hyperelastic modeling of the human brain tissue: E_ects of noslip boundary condition and compressibility on the uniaxial deformation", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 83, pp. 6378 (2018). 26. Murphy, M., Mun, S., Horstemeyer, M., Baskes, M., Bakhtiary, A., LaPlaca, M.C., Gwaltney, S.R., Williams, L.N., and Prabhu, R. Molecular dynamics simulations showing 1palmitoyl2oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) membrane mechanoporation damage under di_erent strain paths", Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 37(5), pp. 114 (2018). 27. HosseiniFarid, M., Ramzanpour, M., Ziejewski, M., and Karami, G. Estimating the brain strain rates during traumatic brain injury", Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 54(1), pp. 361368 (2018). 28. Farid, M.H., Eslaminejad, A., Ramzanpour, M., Ziejewski, M., and Karami, G. The strain rates of the brain and skull under dynamic loading", ASME 2018 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. V003T04A067V003T04A067 (2018). 29. Cheng, S., Clarke, E.C., and Bilston, L.E. Rheological properties of the tissues of the central nervous system: a review", Medical Engineering & Physics, 30(10), pp. 13181337 (2008). 30. Amin, A., Alam, M., and Okui, Y. An improved hyperelasticity relation in modeling viscoelasticity response of natural and high damping rubbers in compression: experiments, parameter identi_cation and numerical veri_cation", Mechanics of Materials, 34(2), pp. 7595 (2002). 31. Huber, N. and Tsakmakis, C. Finite deformation viscoelasticity laws", Mechanics of Materials, 32(1), pp. 118 (2000). 32. Sadeghnejad, S., Elyasi, N., Farahmand, F., Vossoughi, G., and Hosseini, S.M.S. Hyperelastic modeling of sinonasal tissue for haptic neurosurgery simulation", Scientia Iranica, http://scientiairanica. sharif.edu/article 21263.html (2019). 33. Babaei, B., Abramowitch, S.D., Elson, E.L., Thomopoulos, S., and Genin, G.M. A discrete spectral analysis for determining quasilinear viscoelastic properties of biological materials", Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 12(113), p. 20150707 (2015). 34. Garo, A., Hrapko, M., Van Dommelen, J.A.W., and Peters, G.W. Towards a reliable characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of brain tissue: the e_ects of postmortem time and sample preparation", Biorheology, 44(1), pp. 5158 (2007). 35. Abbasi, A.A., Ahmadian, M.T., Alizadeh, A., and Tarighi, S. Application of hyperelastic models in mechanical properties prediction of mouse oocyte and embryo cells at large deformations", Scientia Iranica, 25(2), pp. 700710 (2018). 36. Budday, S., Sommer, G., Holzapfel, G., Steinmann, P., and Kuhl, E. Viscoelastic parameter identi_cation of human brain tissue", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 74, pp. 463476 (2017). 37. Toms, K., Dakin, G.J., Lemons, J.E., and Eberhardt, A.W. Quasilinear viscoelastic behavior of the human periodontal ligament", Journal of Biomechanics, 35(10), pp. 14111415 (2002). 38. Abramowitch, S.D. and Woo, S.L. An improved method to analyze the stress relaxation of ligaments following a _nite ramp time based on the quasilinear viscoelastic theory", Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 126(1), pp. 9297 (2004). 39. Laksari, K., Sha_eian, M., and Darvish, K. Constitutive model for brain tissue under _nite compression", Journal of Biomechanics, 45, pp. 642646 (2012). 40. De Rooij, R. and Kuhl, E. Constitutive modeling of brain tissue: current perspectives", Applied Mechanics Reviews, 68(1), p. 010801 (2016). 41. Nigul, I. and Nigul, U. On algorithms of evaluation of Fung's relaxation function parameters", Journal of Biomechanics, 20(4), pp. 343352 (1987). 42. Rousseau, E., Sauren, A., Van Hout, M., and Van Steenhoven, A. Elastic and viscoelastic material behaviour of fresh and glutaraldehydetreated porcine aortic valve tissue", Journal of Biomechanics, 16(5), pp. 339348 (1983). 43. Sauren, A. and Rousseau, E. A concise sensitivity analysis of the quasilinear viscoelastic model proposed by Fung", J. Biomech. Eng., 105(1), pp. 9295 (1983). 44. Hrapko, M., van Dommelen, J.A.W., Peters, G.W.M., and Wismans, J.S.H.M. The mechanical behaviour of brain tissue: large strain response and constitutive modeling", Biorheology, 43, pp. 623636 (2006). 2056 M. HosseiniFarid et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2047{2056 45. Mendis, K.K., Stalnaker, R.K., and Advani, S.H. A constitutive relationship for large deformation _nite element modeling of brain tissue", Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 117, pp. 279285 (1995). 46. Pervin, F. and Chen, W.W. Dynamic mechanical response of bovine gray matter and white matter brain tissues under compression",Journal of Biomechanics, 42(6), pp. 731735 (2009).##]
1

Analysis of laminated composite plates based on THBRKPM method using the higher order shear deformation plate theory
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21417.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21417
1
In the present investigation, static, free vibration and buckling response of laminated composite plates based on the coupling of truncated hierarchical Bsplines (THBsplines) and reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) within higher order shear deformation plate theory are presented. The coupled THBRKPM method blends the advantages of the isogeometric analysis and meshfree methods. Since under certain conditions, the isogeometric Bspline and NURBS basis functions are exactly represented by reproducing kernel meshfree shape functions, recursive process of producing isogeometric bases can be omitted. More importantly, a seamless link between meshfree methods and isogeometric analysis can be easily defined which provide an authentic meshfree approach to refine the model locally in isogeometric analysis. This procedure can be accomplished using truncated hierarchical Bsplines to construct new bases and adaptively refine them. It is shown that THBRKPM method is ideally appropriate for local refinement of laminated composite plates in the framework of isogeometric analysis. The flexibility of the proposed method for refining basis functions leads to decrease the computational cost without losing the accuracy of the solution. Numerical examples considering different boundary conditions, various aspect ratios, stiffness ratios and fiber orientations demonstrate validity and versatility of the proposed method.
0

2057
2078


H.R.
Atri
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran


S.
Shojaee
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
Laminated composite plates
Higher order shear deformation theory
NURBS
THBsplines
Reproducing kernel particle method
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Xiao, J., Gilhooley, D., Batra, R., Gillespie, J., and Mccarthy, M. Analysis of thick composite laminates using a higherorder shear and normal deformable plate theory (HOSNDPT) and a meshless method", Composites Part B: Engineering, 39, pp. 414427 (2008). 47. Reddy, J.N., Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates: Theory and Analysis, CRC press (1997). 48. Chen, X., Liu, G., and Lim, S. An element free Galerkin method for the free vibration analysis of composite laminates of complicated shape", Composite Structures, 59, pp. 279289 (2003). 49. Thai, C.H., Ferreira, A., Wahab, M.A., and Nguyen Xuan, H. A generalized layerwise higherorder shear deformation theory for laminated composite and sandwich plates based on isogeometric analysis", Acta Mechanica, 227, pp. 12251250 (2016). 50. Kiendl, J., Bazilevs, Y., Hsu, M.C., Wuchner, R., and Bletzinger, K.U. 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1

Finite Element Model and Size Dependent Stability Analysis of Boron Nitride and Silicon Carbide Nanowires/Nanotubes
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21364.html
10.24200/sci.2019.52517.2754
1
In present paper, the stability analysis of boron nitride and silicon carbide nanotubes/nanowires is investigated using different size effective theories, finite element method, and computer software. Size effective theories used in paper are modified couple stress theory (MCST), modified strain gradient theory (MSGT), nonlocal elasticity theory (NET), surface elasticity theory (SET), nonlocal surface elasticity theory (NSET). As computer software, ANSYS and COMSOL multiphysics are used. Comparative results between theories and software and literature are given in result section. Comparative results are in good harmony. As results, it is clearly seen that nonlocal elasticity theory gives lowest results for every modes and structures while modified strain gradient theory gives the highest.
0

2079
2099
Ömer
Civalek
Ömer
Civalek
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Division of Mechanics ‎ AntalyaTURKIYE
Iran
civalek@yahoo.com


Hayri
Numanoğlu
Akdeniz University, Civil Eng.Dept.
Turkey
metin_numanoglu@hotmail.com


Kadir
Mercan
Akdeniz University Civil Eng.
Turkey
mercankadir@akdeniz.edu.tr
Boron nitride
silicon carbide
nanotube
nanowire
buckling
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A new trigonometric beam model for buckling of strain gradient microbeams", Int J Mech Sci, 81, pp. 8894 (2014). 65. Gurses, M., Akgoz, B., and Civalek, O. Mathematical modeling of vibration problem of nanosized annular sector plates using the nonlocal continuum theory via eightnode discrete singular convolution transformation", Appl Math Comput, 219(6), pp. 32263240 (2012). 2098 H.M. Numano_glu et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2079{2099 66. Civalek, O. and Akgoz, B. Free vibration analysis of microtubules as cytoskeleton components: non local EulerBernoulli beam modeling", Sci Iran Trans B, 17(5), pp. 367375 (2010). 67. Mercan, K. A comparative buckling analysis of silicon carbide nanotube and boron nitride nanotube", Int J Eng Appl Sci, 8(4), pp. 99107 (2016). 68. Mercan, K. and Civalek, O. Buckling analysis of Silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) with surface e_ect and nonlocal elasticity using the method of HDQ", Compos Part BEng, 114, pp. 3545 (2017). 69. Mercan, K. and Civalek, O. DSC method for buckling analysis of boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) surrounded by an elastic matrix", Compos Struct, 143, pp. 300309 (2016). 70. Kiani, K. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam for vibrations of magnetically a_ected inclined singlewalled carbon nanotubes as nanouidic conveyors", Acta Phys Pol A, 131(6), pp. 14391444 (2017). 71. Jiang, J.N. and Wang, L.F. Timoshenko beam model for vibrational analysis of doublewalled carbon nanotubes bridged on substrate", Curr Appl Phys, 17(12), pp. 16701690 (2017). 72. Demir, C., Mercan, K., Numanoglu, H.M., et al. Bending response of nanobeams resting on elastic foundation", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 4(2), pp. 105114 (2018). 73. Avcar, M. and Mohammed, W.K.M. Free vibration of functionally graded beams resting on Winkler Pasternak foundation", Arab J Geosci, 11(10), pp. 18 (2018). 74. Civalek, O. The determination of frequencies of laminated conical shells via the discrete singular convolution method", J Mech Mater Struct, 1(1), pp. 163182 (2006). 75. Civalek, O. and Akgoz, B. Vibration analysis of microscaled sector shaped graphene surrounded by an elastic matrix", Comp Mater Sci, 77, pp. 295303 (2013). 76. Baltacioglu, A.K., Civalek, O., Akgoz, B., et al. Large deection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution", Int J Pres Ves Pip, 88(89), pp. 290300 (2011). 77. Baltacioglu, A.K., Akgoz, B., and Civalek, O. Nonlinear static response of laminated composite plates by discrete singular convolution method", Compos Struct, 93(1), pp. 153161 (2010). 78. Avcar, M. E_ects of material nonhomogeneity and two parameter elastic foundation on fundamental frequency parameters of Timoshenko beams", Acta Phys Pol A, 130(1), pp. 375378 (2016). 79. Avcar, M. E_ects of rotary inertia shear deformation and nonhomogeneity on frequencies of beam", Struct Eng Mech, 55(4), pp. 871884 (2015). 80. Fleck, N. and Hutchinson, J. Strain gradient plasticity", Adv Appl Mech, 33, pp. 296361 (1997). 81. Yang, F., Chong, A., Lam, D.C., et al. Couple stress based strain gradient theory for elasticity", Int J Solids Struct, 39(10), pp. 27312743 (2002). 82. Ma, H., Gao, X.L., and Reddy, J. A microstructuredependent Timoshenko beam model based on a modi_ed couple stress theory", J Mech Phys Solids, 56(12), pp. 33793391 (2008). 83. Reddy, J. Microstructuredependent couple stress theories of functionally graded beams", J Mech Phys Solids, 59(11), pp. 23822399 (2011). 84. Zhou, S. and Li, Z. Length scales in the static and dynamic torsion of a circular cylindrical microbar", J Shandong Univ Technol, 31(5), pp. 401407 (2001). 85. Akgoz, B. and Civalek, O. Buckling analysis of cantilever carbon nanotubes using the strain gradient elasticity and modi_ed couple stress theories", J Comput Theor Nanos, 8(9), pp. 18211827 (2011). 86. Akgoz, B. and Civalek, O. Longitudinal vibration analysis for microbars based on strain gradient elasticity theory", J Vib Control, 20(4), pp. 606616 (2014). 87. Akgoz, B. and Civalek, O. Shear deformation beam models for functionally graded microbeams with new shear correction factors", Compos Struct, 112, pp. 214225 (2014). 88. Asghari, M., Kahrobaiyan, M., and Ahmadian, M. A nonlinear Timoshenko beam formulation based on the modi_ed couple stress theory", Int J Eng Sci, 48(12), pp. 17491761 (2010). 89. Eringen, A.C. On di_erential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solutions of screw dislocation and surface waves", J Appl Phys, 54(9), pp. 47034710 (1983). 90. Eringen, A.C., Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories, Springer Science & Business Media (2002). 91. Dingreville, R., Qu, J., and Cherkaoui, M. Surface free energy and its e_ect on the elastic behavior of nanosized particles, wires and _lms", J Mech Phys Solids, 53(8), pp. 18271854 (2005). 92. Mercan, K. and Civalek, O. Buckling Analysis of Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs)", International Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences (IJEAS), 8(2), pp. 101108 (2016). 93. Rahmani, O., Asemani, S., and Hosseini, S. Study the surface e_ect on the buckling of nanowires embedded in WinklerPasternak elastic medium based on a nonlocal theory", J Nanostructures, 6(1), pp. 9095 (2016). 94. Sharma, P. and Ganti, S. Sizedependent Eshelby's tensor for embedded nanoinclusions incorporating surface/interface energies", J Appl Mech, 71(5), pp. 663671 (2004). H.M. Numano_glu et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2079{2099 2099 95. Sharma, P., Ganti, S., and Bhate, N. E_ect of surfaces on the sizedependent elastic state of nanoinhomogeneities", Appl Phys Lett, 82(4), pp. 535537 (2003). 96. Ansari, R., Rouhi, S., Aryayi, M., et al. On the buckling behavior of singlewalled silicon carbide nanotubes", Sci Iran, 19(6), pp. 19841990 (2012). 97. Arani, A.G. and Hashemian, M. Surface stress e_ects on dynamic stability of doublewalled boron nitride nanotubes conveying viscose uid based on nonlocal shell theory", Sci Iran, 20(6), pp. 23562374 (2013). 98. Saljooghi, R., Ahmadiana, M.T., and Farrahi, G.H. Vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded beams using reproducing kernel particle method", Sci Iran, 21(6), pp. 18961906 (2014). 99. Darvizeh, M., Darvizeh, A., Ansari, R., et al. Preand postbuckling analysis of functionally graded beams subjected to statically mechanical and thermal loads", Sci Iran, 22(3), pp. 778791 (2015). 100. Shooshtari, A. and Dalir, M.A. Nonlinear free vibration analysis of clamped circular _ber metal laminated plates", Sci Iran, 22(3), pp. 813824 (2015). 101. Ansari, R. and Gholami, R. Nonlocal nonlinear _rstorder shear deformable beam model for postbuckling analysis of magnetoelectrothermoelastic nanobeams", Sci Iran, 23(6), pp. 30993114 (2016). 102. Rouzegar, J. and Sharifpoor, R.A. Finite element formulations for free vibration analysis of isotropic and orthotropic plates using twovariable re_ned plate theory", Sci Iran, 23(4), pp. 17871799 (2016). 103. Refaeinejad, V., Rahmani, O., and Hosseini, S.A.H. An analytical solution for bending, buckling, and free vibration of FG nanobeam lying on Winkler Pasternak elastic foundation using di_erent nonlocal higher order shear deformation beam theories", Sci Iran, 24(3), pp. 16351653 (2017). 104. Jabbarian, S. and Ahmadian, M.T. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded sti_ened microcylinder based on the modi_ed couple stress theory", Sci Iran, 25(5), pp. 25982615 (2018). 105. Sahoo, S.S., Hirwani, C.K., Panda, S.K., et al. Numerical analysis of vibration and transient behaviour of laminated composite curved shallow shell structure: An experimental validation", Sci Iran, 25(4), pp. 22182232 (2018). 106. COMSOL Multiphysics® v. 5.2. www.comsol.com. COMSOL AB, Stockholm, Sweden. 107. ANSYS® Academic Research Mechanical. 108. Jalan, S.K., Rao, B.N., and Gopalakrishnan, S. Vibrational characteristics of zigzag, armchair and chiral cantilever singlewalled carbon nanotubes", Adv Compos Lett, 22(6), pp. 131142 (2013). 109. Gurtin, M.E. and Murdoch, A.I. A continuum theory of elastic material surfaces", Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, 57(4), pp. 291323 (1975). 110. Gurtin, M.E. and Murdoch, A.I. Surface Stress in Solids", Int J Solids Struct, 14(6), pp. 431440 (1978). 111. Civalek, O. and Demir, C. A simple mathematical model of microtubules surrounded by an elastic matrix by nonlocal _nite element method", Appl Math Comput, 289, pp. 335352 (2016). 112. Naidu, N. and Rao, G. Vibrations of initially stressed uniform beams on a twoparameter elastic foundation", Comp Struct, 57(5), pp. 941943 (1995).##]
1

Calculation of coupled modes of fluidstructure systems by pseudo symmetric subspace iteration method
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21488.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21488
1
An efficient technique is proposed for calculation of coupled modes of fluidstructure interaction systems. The algorithm is presented with symmetric matrix operation mentality such that one feels that a symmetric eigenproblem is being solved. Furthermore, it is proved that each left eigenvector is related to the corresponding right eigenvector through a simple relation. Therefore, subsequent transient analysis can readily be performed. Overall, it is felt that the method is very efficient and it is ideal to be employed in general purpose finite element programs for solving abovementioned eigenproblems
0

2100
2107


V.
Lotfi
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Iran
vahlotfi@aut.ac.ir


A.
Aftabi Sani
Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
FluidStructure Interaction
Eigenproblem
Pseudo symmetric technique
Subspace iteration method
Coupled modes
[1. Wilson, E.L. and Khalvati, M. Finite elements for the dynamic analysis of uidsolid systems", International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 19, pp. 16571668 (1983). 2. Bathe, K.J. and Hahn, W. On transient analysis of uidstructure systems", Computers & Structures, 10, pp. 383391 (1979). 3. Hamdi, M.A., Ousset, Y. and Verchery, G. A displacement method for the analysis of coupled uidstructure systems", International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 13, pp. 139150 (1978). 4. Everstine, G.C. A symmetric potential formulation for uidstructure interaction", Letter to the Editor, Journal of Sound and Vibrations, 79, pp. 157160 (1981). 5. Olson, L.G. and Bathe, K.J. Analysis of uidstructure interaction. A direct symmetric coupled formulation based on the velocity potential", Computers & Structures, 21, pp. 2132 (1985). 6. Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Bettess, P. Fluidstructure dynamic interaction and wave forces", International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 13, pp. 116 (1978). 7. Zienkiewicz, O.C., Paul, D.K., and Hinton, E. Cavitation in uidstructure response (with particular reference to dams under earthquake loading)", Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 11, pp. 463481 (1983). 8. Hellgren, R. and Gasch, T. Fluid structure interaction", International Water Power and Dam Construction, 8, pp. 4045 (2015). 9. Jafari, M. and Lot_, V. Dynamic analysis of concrete gravity damreservoir systems by Wavenumber approach for the general reservoir base condition", International Journal of Science and Technology, Scientia Iranica, 25(6), pp. 30543065 (2018). 10. Khazaee, A. and Lot_, V. Application of perfectly matched layers in the transient analysis of damreservoir systems", Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 60(1), pp. 5168 (2014). 11. Pelecanos, L., Kontoe, S., and Zdravkovi_c, L. Damreservoir interaction e_ects in the elastic dynamic response ofconcrete and earth dams", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 82, pp. 138141 (2016). 12. Omidi, O. and Lot_, V. A symmetric implementation of pressurebased uidstructure interaction for nonlinear seismic analysis of arch dams", Journal of Fluids and Structures, 69(1), pp. 3455 (2017). 13. Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Taylor, R.L., The Finite Element Method, 1, ButterworthHeinemann (2000). 14. Ohayon, R. and Valid, R. True symmetric formulation of free vibrations for uidstructure interaction in bounded media", in R.W. Lewis, P. Bettess, and E. Hinton, eds., Numerical Methods in Coupled Systems, Wiley, Chichester (1984). 15. Felippa, C.A. and Ohayon, R. Mixed variational formulation of _nite element analysis of acoustoelastic/ slosh uidstructure interaction", Journal of Fluid and Structures, 4, pp. 3557 (1990). 16. Bathe, K.J., Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall (1996). 17. Hall, J.F. and Chopra, A.K. Dynamic analysis of arch dams including hydrodynamic e_ects", Journal of Engineering Mechanics Div., ASCE, 109(1), pp. 149 163 (1983).##]
1

An efficient method for reliability estimation using the combination of asymptotic sampling and weighted simulation
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21367.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21367
1
In this paper, an efficient reliability method is proposed. The Asymptotic Sampling (AS) and Weighted Simulation (WS) are two main basic tools of the presented method. In AS, the standard deviation of the distributions are amplified at several levels to find an adequate number of failed samples, then by using a simple regression technique, the reliability index is determined. The WS is another method which uses the uniform distribution for sampling, where the information about the distributions of the variables is taken into account through the weight indexes. The WS provides interesting flexibility where a sample generated for a specific standard deviation can be used as a sample for another standard deviation without having to reevaluate the limit state function. In AS the deviations of variables are scaled in each step, where one can use the flexibility of the WS to decrease the required calls of limit state function. Using this technique results in a new efficient method socalled Asymptotic Weighted Simulation (AWS). In addition, using the strengths of both AS and WS can be considered another superiority of the hybrid version. Performance of the presented method is investigated by solving several mathematical and engineering examples.
0

2108
2122


A.
Kaveh
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran16, Iran
Iran
alikaveh@just.ac.ir


A.
Dadras Eslamlou
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran16, Iran
Iran
Reliability index
Failure probability
Sampling method
Asymptotic behavior
Weighted simulation
[1. Zio, E. Reliability engineering: Old problems and new challenges", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 94(2), pp.125141 (2009). 2. Selvik, J.T. and Signoret, J.P. How to interpret safety critical failures in risk and reliability assessments", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 161, pp. 6168 (2017). 3. ThoftCristensen, P. and Baker, M.J., Structural Reliability Theory and Its Applications, Springer Science & Business Media (2012). 4. Frangopol, D.M. and Maute, K. Lifecycle reliabilitybased optimization of civil and aerospace structures", Computers & Structures, 81(7), pp. 397410 (2003). 5. Chakraborty, S. and Majumder, D. Hybrid reliability analysis framework for reliability analysis of tunnels", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 32(4), p. 04018018 (2018). 6. Okasha, N.M. Proposed algorithms for an e_cient system reliabilitybased design optimization of truss structures", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 30(5), p. 04016008 (2016). 7. Bucher, C., Computational Analysis of Randomness in Structural Mechanics, CRC Press, London (2009). 8. Hasofer, A.M. and Lind, N.C. Exact and invariant secondmoment code format", Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 100(1), pp. 111121 (1974). 9. Aslam, M., Tahir, M., and Hussain, Z. Reliability analysis of 3component mixture of distributions", Scientia Iranica, 25(3), pp. 17681781 (2018). 10. Macke, M. and Bucher, C. Importance sampling for randomly excited dynamical systems", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 268(2), pp. 269290 (2003). 11. Bucher, C. Asymptotic sampling for highdimensional reliability analysis", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 24(4), pp. 504510 (2009). 12. Rashki, M., Miri, M., and Moghaddam, M.A. A new e_cient simulation method to approximate the probability of failure and most probable point", Structural Safety, 39, pp. 2229 (2012). 13. Kaveh, A., Advances in Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimal Design of Structures, Springer, Switzerland (2017). 14. Kaveh, A. and Dadras, A. A novel metaheuristic optimization algorithm: Thermal exchange optimization", Advances in Engineering Software, 110, pp. 69 84 (2017). 15. Kaveh, A., Dadras, A., and Montazeran, A.H. Chaotic enhanced colliding bodies algorithms for size optimization of truss structures", Acta Mechanica, 229(7), pp. 28832907 (2018). 16. Kaveh, A., Dadras, A., and Malek, N.G. Buckling load of laminated composite plates using three variants of the biogeographybased optimization algorithm", Acta Mechanica, 229(4), pp. 15511566 (2018). 17. A. Rahmati, S.H., Ahmadi, A., and Karimi, B. Developing simulation based optimization mechanism for a novel stochastic reliability centered maintenance problem", Scientia Iranica, 25(5), pp. 27882806 (2018). 18. Gharib, Z., BozorgiAmiri, A., TavakkoliMoghaddam, R., and Naja_, E. A clusterbased emergency vehicle routing problem in disaster with reliability", Scientia Iranica, 25(4), pp. 23122330 (2018). 19. Breitung, K. Asymptotic approximations for multinormal integrals", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 110(3), pp. 357366 (1984). 20. Gasser, C. and Bucher, C. An optimized strategy for using asymptotic sampling for reliability analysis", Structural Safety, 71, pp. 3340 (2018). 21. Chen, X. and Li, J. A subset multicanonical Monte Carlo method for simulating rare failure events", Journal of Computational Physics, 344, pp. 2335 (2017). 22. Kim, S.H. and Na, S.W. Response surface method using vector projected sampling points", Structural Safety, 19(1), pp. 319 (1997). 23. Elegbede, C. Structural reliability assessment based on particles swarm optimization", Structural Safety, 27(2), pp. 171186 (2005). 24. Weingarten, V. and Seide, P. NASA SP8019{ buckling of thinwalled truncated cones", NASA Space vehicle Design CriteriaStructures (1968). 25. Rashki, M., Miri, M., and Moghaddam, M.A. A simulationbased method for reliability based design optimization problems with highly nonlinear constraints", Automation in Construction, 47, pp. 2436 (2014). 26. Song, S., Lu, Z., and Qiao, H. Subset simulation for structural reliability sensitivity analysis", Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 94(2), pp. 658665 (2009).##]
1

A computational plastic–damage method for modeling the FRP strengthening of concrete arches
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21357.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21357
1
In this paper, a computational technique is presented based on a concrete plasticdamage model to investigate the effect of FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete arches. A plasticdamage model is utilized to capture the behavior of concrete. The interface between the FRP and concrete is modeled using a cohesive fracture model. In order to validate the accuracy of the damageplastic model, a single element is employed under the monotonic tension, monotonic compression, and cyclic tension loads. An excellent agreement is observed between the predefined strainstress curve and those obtained from the numerical model. Furthermore, the accuracy of the cohesive fracture model is investigated by comparing the numerical results with those of experimental data. Finally, in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed computational algorithm, the results are compared with the experimental data obtained from two tests conducted on reinforced concrete arches strengthened with FRP.
0

2123
2132


T.
Ahmadpour
Center of Excellence in Structures and Earthquake Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of
Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 111559313, Iran.
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Sharif University
Iran


Y.
Navid Tehrani
Center of Excellence in Structures and Earthquake Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of
Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 111559313, Iran.
Iran


A.R.
Khoei
Center of Excellence in Structures and Earthquake Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365‐9313, Tehran, Iran
Iran
arkhoei@sharif.edu
Concrete arches
FRP retrofitting
Reinforced concrete
Plasticdamage model
Cohesive fracture model
[1. Borri, A., Castori, G., and Corradi, M. Intrados strengthening of brick masonry arches with composite materials", Composites Part B: Eng., 42, pp. 1164 1172 (2011). 2. Tao, Y., Stratford, T.J., and Chen, J.F. Behaviour of a masonry arch bridge repaired using _brereinforced polymer composites", Eng. Struct., 33, pp. 15941606 (2011). 3. Chen, H., Zhou, J., Fan, H., et al. Dynamic responses of buried arch structure subjected to subsurface localized impulsive loading: Experimental study", Int. J. Impact Eng., 65, pp. 89101 (2014). 4. Hamed, E., Chang, Z.T., and Rabinovitch, O. Strengthening of reinforced concrete arches with externally bonded composite materials: Testing and analysis", J. Composites Construc., 19, pp. 04014031 (2015). 5. Dagher, H.J., Bannon, D.J., Davids, W.G., et al. Bending behavior of concrete_lled tubular FRP arches for bridge structures", Construc. Building Mater., 37, pp. 432439 (2012). 6. Zhang, X., Wang, P., Jiang, M., et al. CFRP strengthening reinforced concrete arches: Strengthening methods and experimental studies", Composite Struct., 131, pp. 852867 (2015). 7. Feenstra, P.H. and de Borst, R. A composite plasticity model for concrete", Int. J. Solids Struct., 33, pp. 707730 (1996). 8. _Cervenka, J. and Papanikolaou, V.K. Three dimensional combined fractureplastic material model for concrete", Int. J. Plasticity, 24, pp. 21922220 (2008). 9. Khoei, A.R. and Azami, A.R. A single conecap plasticity with an isotropic hardening rule for powder materials", Int. J. Mech. Sciences, 47, pp. 94109 (2005). 10. DorMohammadi, H. and Khoei, A.R. A threeinvariant cap model with isotropickinematic hardening rule and associated plasticity for granular materials", Int. J. Solids Struct., 45, pp. 631656 (2008). 11. Ba_zant, Z.P. and O_zbolt, J. Nonlocal microplane model for fracture, damage, and size e_ect in structures", J. Eng. Mech., 116, pp. 24852505 (1990). 12. Voyiadjis, G.Z. and AbuLebdeh, T.M. Damage model for concrete using bounding surface concept", J. Eng. Mech., 119, pp. 18651885 (1993). 13. Lubliner, J., Oliver, J., Oller, S., et al. A plasticdamage model for concrete", Int. J. Solids Struct., 25, pp. 299326 (1989). 14. Yazdani, S. and Schreyer, H.L. Combined plasticity and damage mechanics model for plain concrete", J. Eng. Mech., 116, pp. 14351450 (1990). 15. Kattan, P.I. and Voyiadjis, G.Z. A coupled theory of damage mechanics and _nite strain elastoplasticity  I. Damage and elastic deformations", Int. J. Eng. Science, 28, pp. 421435 (1990). 16. Kattan, P.I. and Voyiadjis, G.Z. A coupled theory of damage mechanics and _nite strain elastoplasticity  II. Damage and _nite strain plasticity", Int. J. Eng. Science, 28, pp. 505524 (1990). 17. Lee, J. and Fenves, G.L. Plasticdamage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures", J. Eng. Mech., 124, pp. 892900 (1998). 18. Faria, R., Oliver, J., and Cervera, M. A strainbased plastic viscousdamage model for massive concrete structures", Int. J. Solids Struct., 35, pp. 15331558 (1998). 19. Salari, M.R., Saeb, S., Willam, K.J., et al. A coupled elastoplastic damage model for geomaterials", Comput. Meth. Applied Mech. Eng., 193, pp. 26252643 (2004). 20. Grassl, P. and Jir_asek, M. Damageplastic model for concrete failure", Int. J. Solids Struct., 43, pp. 7166 7196 (2006). 21. Nguyen, G.D. and Korsunsky, A.M. Damageplasticity modelling of concrete: calibration of parameters using separation of fracture energy", Int. J. Fracture, 139, pp. 325332 (2006). 2132 T. Ahmadpour et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2123{2132 22. Nguyen, G.D. and Houlsby, G.T. A coupled damageplasticity model for concrete based on thermodynamic principles: Part I: model formulation and parameter identi_cation", Int. J. Numer. Analy. Meth. Geomech., 32, pp. 353389 (2008). 23. Nguyen, G.D. and Houlsby, G.T. A coupled damageplasticity model for concrete based on thermodynamic principles: Part II: nonlocal regularization and numerical implementation", Int. J. Numer. Analy. Meth. Geomech., 32, pp. 391413 (2008). 24. Moslemi, H. and Khoei, A.R. 3D modeling of damage growth and crack initiation using adaptive _nite element technique", Scientia Iranica, Trans. A., J. Civil Eng., 17, pp. 372386 (2010). 25. Khoei, A.R., Eghbalian, M., Azadi, H., et al. Numerical simulation of ductile crack growth under cyclic and dynamic loading with a damageviscoplasticity model", Eng. Fracture Mech., 99, pp. 169190 (2013). 26. Broumand, P. and Khoei, A.R. The extended _nite element method for large deformation ductile fracture problems with a nonlocal damageplasticity model", Eng. Fracture Mech., 112, pp. 97125 (2013). 27. Broumand, P. and Khoei, A.R. XFEM modeling of dynamic ductile fracture problems with a nonlocal damageviscoplasticity model", Finite Elements Anal. Design, 99, pp. 4967 (2015). 28. Khoei, A.R., Extended Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications, John Wiley (2015). 29. Khoei, A.R., Moslemi, H., Ardakany, K.M., et al. Modeling of cohesive crack growth using an adaptive mesh re_nement via the modi_edSPR technique", Int. J. Fracture, 159, pp. 2141 (2009). 30. Khoei, A.R., Moslemi, H., and Shari_, M. Threedimensional cohesive fracture modeling of nonplanar crack growth using adaptive FE technique", Int. J. Solids Struct., 49, pp. 23342348 (2012). 31. Turon, A., Camanho, P.P., Costa, J., et al. A damage model for the simulation of delamination in advanced composites under variablemode loading", Mech. Mater., 38, pp. 10721089 (2006). 32. Gopalaratnam, V. and Shah, S.P. Softening response of plain concrete in direct tension", ACI Mater. J., 82, pp. 310323 (1985). 33. Au, C. and Buyukozturk, O. Peel and shear fracture characterization of debonding in FRP plated concrete a_ected by moisture", J. Composites Construc., 10, pp. 3547 (2006). 34. Moradi, H., Khaloo, A., Shekarchi, M., and Kazemian, A. E_ect of glass _berreinforced polymer on exural strengthening of RC arches", Scientia Iranica, Transactions A, 26(4), pp. 22992309 (2019).##]
1

Toxicity Evaluation of Highway Stormwater Runoff
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21420.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21420
1
This paper is prepared to present the results of two major toxicity investigations of highway runoff in the state of California and verify or reject the hypothesis of whether highway runoff is toxic. Two major toxicity studies were: (1) statewide highway runoff toxicity evaluation and (2) hydrographic (first flush) toxicity evaluation of runoff from highly urbanized highways. Extensive grab and composite runoff samples were collected from numerous highway sites throughout the state of California for multiple storm events and multiple years. Wide ranges of toxicity testing, including the three U.S.EPA standard species, marine species, green algae growth and Microtox™ were performed on grab and composite samples. The results obtainedrevealed that the highway runoff is generally toxic, and the toxicity is mostly associated with heavy metals and organic compounds such as herbicides, pesticides, and surfactants. While outside of the scope of this study, an independent performance evaluation of stormwater treatment showed that toxicity removal after best management treatments (BMPs) is possible even though some influent samples entering the BMP were toxic.
0

2133
2153


M.
Kayhanian
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
Canada
mdkayhanian@ucdavis.edu


M.L.
Johnson
Formerly, John Muir Institute of the Environment, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616; Currently, MLJ
Environmental, LLC, Davis, CA 95616.
Canada
Highway
stormwater runoff
toxicity
freshwater toxicity species
marine species toxicity
first flush toxicity
Microtox™
toxicity identification evaluation (TIE)
BMP performance
[1. BASMAA San Francisco bay area stormwater runo_ monitoring data analysis, 19881995", Final Report Prepared by WoodwardClyde, San Francisco, California (1996). 2. Greenstein, D., Tiefenthaler, L., and Bay, S. Toxicity of parking lot runo_ after application of simulated rainfall", Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 47(2), pp. 199206 (2004). 3. Pitt, R., Field, R., Lalor, M., and Brown, M. Urban stormwater toxic pollutants: assessment, sources, and treatability", Water Environment Research, 67(3), pp. 26075 (1995). 4. Marsalek, J., Rochfort, Q., Brownlee, B., Mayer, T., and Servos, M. An exploratory study of urban runo_ toxicity", Water Science and Technology, 39(12), pp. 3339 (1999). 5. Wu, L., Jiang, Y., Zhang, L., Chen, L., and Zhang, H. Toxicity of urban highway runo_ in Shanghai to 2152 M. Kayhanian and M.L. Johnson/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2133{2153 Zebra_sh (Danio rerio) embryos and luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis.Q67)", Environmental Science and Pollution and Research, 21(4), pp. 26632376 (2015). 6. Johnson, M., Werner, I., Fessler, C., Fong, S., and Deanovic, L. Toxicity of stormwater from Caltrans facilities", Final report (CTSWRT0507310.1) prepared for the Division of Environmental Analysis, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, California (2005). 7. Kayhanian, M., Singh, A., Suverkropp, C., and Borroum, S. Impact of annual average daily tra_c on highway runo_ pollutant concentration", Journal of Environmental Engineering, 129(11), pp. 975990 (2003). 8. Kayhanian, M., Suverkropp, C., Ruby, A., and Tsay, K. Characterization and prediction of highway runo_ pollutant event mean concentration", Journal of Environmental Management, 85(2), pp. 279295 (2007). 9. U.S.EPA, Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of E_uents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms, United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Research and Development, U.S.EPA/600/490/027F, Washington DC (1993). 10. U.S.EPA, Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identi_cation Evaluation  Phase I Toxicity Characterization Procedures, Second Edition (U.S. EPA/600/691/003), United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Research and Development, Washington DC (1991). 11. U.S.EPA, Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identi_cation Evaluations  Phase II Toxicity Identi_cation Procedures for Samples Exhibiting Acute and Chronic Toxicity, United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Research and Development U.S.EPA/600/R 92/080, Washington DC (1993a). 12. U.S.EPA, Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identi_cation Evaluations  Phase III Toxicity Con_rmation Procedures for Samples Exhibiting Acute and Chronic Toxicity, United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Research and Development, EPA/600/R 92/081, Washington DC (1993b). 13. Bailey, H.C., DiGiorgia, C., Kroll, K., Miller, J.L., Hinton, D.E., and Starrett, G. Development of procedures for identifying pesticide toxicity in ambient waters: carbofuran, diazinon, chlorpyrifos", Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15(6), pp. 837845 (1996). 14. Crepeau, K.L., Kuivila, K.M., and Domagalski, J.L. Concentrations of dissolved rice pesticides in the Colusa basin drain and Sacramento river, California, 19901992", in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., Eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program{Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 2024, 1993: U.S. Geological SurveyWaterResources Investigations Report 944015, 2, pp. 711718 (1996). 15. Carpenter, K.D., Kuivila, K.M., Hladik, M.L., Haluska, T., and Cole, M.B. Stormeventtransport of urbanuse pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages", Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 345(188), pp. 118 (2016). 16. Majewski, M.S., Zamora, C., Foreman, W.T., and Kratzer, C.R. Contribution of atmospheric deposition to pesticide loads in surface water runo_", Report 20051307 prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, Sacramento, California, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado (2005). https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1307/ofr2005 1307.pdf (accessed January 25, 2019). 17. Ma, Y., Egodawatta, P., McGree, J., and Goonetilleke, A. Assessment and management of human health risk from toxic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater arising from anthropogenic activities and tra_c congestion", Science of the Total Environment, 597(2), pp. 202211 (2017). 18. Burnel, A., Selbig, W., Furlong, E.T., and Higgons, C.P. Trace organic contaminants in urban runo_: Associations with urban landuse", Environmental Pollution, 424, (Part B), pp. 20682077 (2018). 19. Kayhanian, M. and Stenstrom, M.K. Hydrographic toxicity evaluation of stormwater runo_", Final report (CTSWRT057324.3), prepared for the division of Environmental Analysis, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (2005a) 20. Stenstrom, M.K. and Kayhanian, M. First ush phenomenon characterization", Final report (CTSWRT 057302.6) prepared for the Division of Environmental Analysis, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, California (2005b). 21. Kayhanian, M. and Stenstrom, M.K. First ush highway runo_ characterization for stormwater runo_ treatment", Stormwater, 9(2), pp. 3245 (2008). 22. U.S.EPA, Methods for Masuring the Acute Toxicity of E_uents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms, Fifth edition, United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Water, EPA 821R02012, Washington DC (2002a). 23. Kayhanian, M., Stransky, C., Bay, S., Lau, S.L., and Stenstrom, M.K. Hydrograph toxicity evaluation of urban highway runo_", Science of The Total Environment, 389(23), pp. 386406 (2008). 24. U.S.EPA, Methods for Measuring the Chronic Toxicity of E_uents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, Fourth edition. United States Environmental Protection Agency O_ce of Water, U.S. EPA821R 02013, Washington DC (2002b). 25. Tidepool Scienti_c Software Comprehensive environmental toxicity information system (CETIS)", software, version 1.025B, McKinleyville, CA (2002). 26. GraphPad Software Inc. GraphPad Prism, Version 4.02, San Diego, CA (19942000). 27. McIntyre, J.K., Davis, J.W., Hinman, C., Macneale, K.H., Anulacion, B.F., Scholz, N.L., and Stark, J.D. M. Kayhanian and M.L. Johnson/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2133{2153 2153 Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runo_", Chemosphere, 132(8), pp. 213219 (2015). 28. Bitton, G.K. and Koopman, B. Ceriofast: an acute toxicity test based on Ceriodaphnia dubia feeding behavior", Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15(2), pp. 1235 (1996). 29. SchubauerBerigan, M.K., Dierkes, J.R., Monson, P.D., and Ankley, G.T. pHdependent toxicity of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, Hyalella azteca, and Lumbriculus variegatus", Environ. Toxicol. and Chem., 12(7), pp. 1261 1266 (1993a). 30. Nautilus Environmental Sensitivity of larval P. promelas, and Ceriodaphnia dubia to total copper (Cu)", Unpublished laboratory data from 20042005, Nautilus Environmental, San Diego, CA (2005). 31. Nautilus Environmental Sensitivity of larval P. promelas, and Ceriodaphnia dubia to total zinc (Zn)", Unpublished laboratory data from 20042005, Nautilus Environmental, San Diego, CA (2006). 32. Paquin, P.R., Santore, R.C., Farley, K., et al. Metals in aquatic systems: A review of exposure, bioaccumulation, and toxicity models (aquatic metals", SETAC Press, p. 160 (2003). 33. SchubauerBerigan, M.K., Amato, J.R., Ankley, G.T., Baker, S.E., Burkhard, L.P., Dierkes, J.R., Jenson, J.J., Lukasewycz, M.T., and NorbergKing, T.J. The behavior and identi_cation of toxic metals in complex mixtures: Examples from e_uent and sediment porewater toxicity identi_cation evaluations", Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 24(3), pp. 298306 (1993b). 34. Bergman, H.L. and DorwardKing, E.J. Reassessment of metals criteria for aquatic life protection", Proceedings of the Pellston Workshop on Reassessment of Metals Criteria for Aquatic Life Protection, Pensacola, FL, SETAC Press, Pensacola (1997) 35. Strecker, E.W., Quigley, M.M., Urbonas, B.R., Jones, J.E., and Clary, J.K. Determining urban storm water BMP e_ectiveness", Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 127(3), pp. 144149 (2001). 36. Kayhanian, M., Stenstrom, M.K., and Young, T.M. Performance evaluation of a detention basin based on removal of particles and the associated pollutants", Final report (CTSWRT0616805.1) prepared for the Division of Environmental Analysis, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (2007). 37. Anderson, B.S., Phillips, B.M., Voorhees, J.P., Siegler, K., and Tjeerdema, R. Bioswales reduce contaminants associated with toxicity in urban storm water", Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, 35(12), pp. 31243134 (2016).##]
1

Employing a Novel Gait Pattern Generator on a Social Humanoid Robot
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21358.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21358
1
This paper presents a novel Gait Pattern Generator developed for the “Alice” social humanoid robot whichup to now lacked an appropriate walking pattern. Due to the limitations of this robot, the proposed gatepattern generator was formulated based on a ninemass model to decrease the modeling errors; and theinverse kinematics of the whole lowerbody was solved in such a way that the robot remains staticallystable during the movements. The main challenge of this work was to solve the inverse kinematics of a7link chain with 12 degreesoffreedom. For this purpose, a new graphicalnumerical technique has beenprovided using the definition of the kinematic equations of the robot joints’ Cartesian coordinates. Thismethod resulted in a significant increase in the calculations’ solution rate. Finally, a novel algorithm wasdeveloped for stepbystep displacement of the robot towards a desired destination in a twodimensionalspace. Performance of the proposed gate pattern generator was evaluated both with a model of the robot ina MATLAB Simulink environment and in real experiments with the Alice humanoid robot.
0

2154
2166


A.
Meghdari
Social & Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), School of
Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IRAN
Iran
meghdari@sharif.edu


S.
Behzadipour
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
behzadipour@sharif.ir


M.
Abedi
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
Social robots
bipedal robots
gait pattern generating
inverse kinematics
static stability condition
[1. Taheri, A., Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., et al. Teaching music to children with autism: a social robotics challenge", Scientia Iranica, 26(1), pp. 4058 (2019). 2. Alemi, M., Meghdari, A., and Ghazisaedy, M. The impact of social robotics on L2 learners' anxiety and attitude in English vocabulary acquisition", International Journal of Social Robotics, 7(4), pp. 523535 (2015). 3. Alemi, M., Ghanbarzadeh, A., Meghdari, A., et al. Clinical application of a humanoid robot in pediatric cancer interventions", International Journal of Social Robotics, 8(5), pp. 743759 (2016). 4. Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Zakipour, M., et al. Design and realization of a sign language educational humanoid robot", Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, pp. 115 (2018). 5. Meghdari, A., Shariati, A., Alemi, M., et al. Design performance characteristics of a social robot companion Arash" for pediatric hospitals", International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 15(05), p. 1850019 (2018). 6. Meghdari, A., Shariati, A., Alemi, M., et al. Arash: A social robot buddy to support children with cancer in a hospital environment", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 232(6), pp. 605618 (2018). 7. AlShuka, H.F., Allmendinger, F., Corves, B., et al. Modeling, stability and walking pattern generators of biped robots: a review", Robotica, 32(6), pp.907934 (2014). 8. Jianghai, Z., Xiaodong, Y., Feng, H., et al. Walking pattern generation of biped robot using trajectory planning of gravity center", In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 890895 (2014). 9. Vukobratovic, M., Frank, A.A., and Juricic, D. On the stability of biped locomotion", IEEE Transactions A. Meghdari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2154{2166 2165 on Biomedical Engineering, BME17(1), pp. 2536 (1970). 10. Goswami, A. Postural stability of biped robots and the footrotation indicator (FRI) point", The International Journal of Robotics Research, 18(6), pp. 523533 (1999). 11. Goswami, A. and Kallem, V. Rate of change of angular momentum and balance maintenance of biped robots", In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004. Proceedings. ICRA'04. 2004, 4, pp. 37853790 (2004). 12. Garcia, E., Estremera, J., and De Santos, P.G. A comparative study of stability margins for walking machines", Robotica, 20(6), pp. 595606 (2002). 13. De Santos, P.G., Jimenez, M.A., and Armada, M.A. Dynamic e_ects in statically stable walking machines", Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 23(1), pp. 7185 (1998). 14. Popovic, M.B., Goswami, A., and Herr, H. Ground reference points in legged locomotion: De_nitions, biological trajectories and control implications", The International Journal of Robotics Research, 24(12), pp. 10131032 (2005). 15. Kajita, S., Kanehiro, F., Kaneko, K., et al. The 3D linear inverted pendulum mode: A simple modeling for a biped walking pattern generation", In Proceedings 2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Expanding the Societal Role of Robotics in the Next Millennium (Cat. No. 01CH37180), 1, pp. 239246 (2001). 16. Park, J.H. and Kim, K.D. May. Biped robot walking using gravitycompensated inverted pendulum mode and computed torque control", In Proceedings. 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. No. 98CH36146), 4, pp. 35283533 (1998). 17. Shimmyo, S., Sato, T., and Ohnishi, K. Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control based on threemass model", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 60(11), pp. 51375147 (2013). 18. Meghdari, A., Sohrabpour, S., Naderi, D., et al. A novel method of gait synthesis for bipedal fast locomotion", Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 53(2), pp. 101118 (2008). 19. Albert, A. and Gerth, W. Analytic path planning algorithms for bipedal robots without a trunk", Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 36(2), pp. 109127 (2003). 20. Sakagami, Y., Watanabe, R., Aoyama, C., et al. The intelligent ASIMO: System overview and integration", In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 3, pp. 24782483 (2002). 21. Gouaillier, D., Hugel, V., Blazevic, P., et al. Mechatronic design of NAO humanoid", In 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 769774 (2009). 22. Ali, M.A., Park, H.A., and Lee, C.G. Closedform inverse kinematic joint solution for humanoid robots", In 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 704709 (2010). 23. Lim_on, R.C., Ibarra, Z.J.M., and Armada, R.M._A. Inverse kinematics of a humanoid robot with nonspherical hip: A hybrid algorithm approach", International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 10(4), p. 213 (2013). 24. https://legodiscounter.com/hansonrobokindr50 humanoidalice 25. Taheri, A.R., Alemi, M., Meghdari, A., et al. Social robots as assistants for autism therapy in Iran: Research in progress", In 2014 Second RSI/ISM International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM), pp. 760766 (2014). 26. Taheri, A., Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., et al. Clinical interventions of social humanoid robots in the treatment of a pair of highand lowfunctioning autistic Iranian twins", Scientia Iranica, Transactions B, Mechanical Engineering, 25(3), pp. 11971214 (2018). 27. Taheri, A.R., Alemi, M., Meghdari, A., et al. Clinical application of humanoid robots in playing imitation games for autistic children in Iran", ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 176, pp. 898906 (2015). 28. Taheri, A., Alemi, M., Meghdari, A., et al. Impact of humanoid social robots on treatment of a pair of Iranian autistic twins", In Social Robotics: 7th Int. Conf., ICSR 2015, Paris, France, pp. 623632 (2015). 29. Abedi, M. On the design of a gait pattern for the Alice Mina" social robot", M.Sc. Thesis, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (January, 2016). 30. https://www.robokind.com/ 31. Spong, M.W., Hutchinson, S., and Vidyasagar, M. Forward and invers kinematics", In Robot Modeling and Control, First Edn., pp. 65103 (2006).##]
1

The nontrivial zeros of completed zeta function and Riemann hypothesis
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21465.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21465
1
Based on the completed Zeta function, this paper addresses that the real part ofevery nontrivial zero of the Riemann’s............
0

2167
2175


X.J.
Yang
State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, People's Republic of China.eoples Republic of China.; School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University
China
Riemann hypothesis
Riemann’s Zeta function
nontrivial zeros
critical line
completed Zeta function
[1. Carlson, J., Carlson, J.A., Ja_e, A., and Wiles, A., Eds., The Millennium Prize Problems, American Mathematical Society, New York, USA (2006). 2. Jessen, B. and Wintner, A. Distribution functions and the Riemann zeta function", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 38(1), pp. 4888 (1935). 3. Selberg, A. Contribution to the theory of the Riemann zetafunction", Archiv for Mathematik Og Naturvidenskab, 48(5), pp. 89155 (1946). 4. Hardy, G.H. and Littlewood, J.E. Contributions to the theory of the Riemann zetafunction and the theory of the distribution of primes", Acta Mathematica, 41(1), pp. 119196 (1916). 5. Neukirch, J., Algebraic Number Theory, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (the original German edition was published in 1992 under the title Algebraische Zahlentheorie) (1999). 6. Riemann, G.F.B. Uber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Groosse", Monatsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 2, pp. 671680 (1859). 7. Euler, L. Sur la perfection des verres objectfs des lunettes", M_emoires de lacad_emie des sciences de Berlin, pp. 274296 (1749). 8. Chebyshev, P.L., Selected Mathematical Works, MoscowLeningrad (1946) (In Russian). 9. Devlin, K., The Millennium Problems: The Seven Greatest Unsolved Mathematical Puzzles of Our Time, Barnes & Noble, New York (2002). 10. Berry, M.V. and Keating, J.P. The Riemann zeros and eigenvalue asymptotics", Siam Review, 41(2), pp. 236266 (1999). 11. Sierra, G. and Townsend, P.K. Landau levels and Riemann zeros", Physical Review Letters, 101(11), p. 110201 (2008). 12. Bender, C.M., Brody, D.C., and Muller, M.P. Hamiltonian for the zeros of the Riemann zeta function", Physical Review Letters, 118(13), p. 130201 (2017). X.J. Yang/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2167{2175 2175 13. Euler, L. Remarques sur un beau rapport entre les series des puissances tant directes que reciproques", Memoires de l'academie des Sciences de Berlin, 17, pp. 83106 (1768). 14. Neukirch, J., Algebraic Number Theory, Springer, New York, USA (1999). 15. Hardy, G.H., Ramanujan: Twelve Lectures on Subjects Suggested by his Life and Work, Cambridge University Press, London (1940). 16. Titchmarsh, E.C., The Theory of the Riemann Zeta Function, 2nd Ed., Clarendon Press, New York (1987). 17. Yang, X.J., Baleanu, D., and Srivastava, H.M., Local Fractional Integral Transforms and Their Applications, Academic Press, London (2015). 18. Sarnak, P., Problems of the Millenium: The Riemann Hypothesis, Clay Mathematics Institute, New York, USA (2004). 19. Gelbart, S. and Miller, S. Riemann's zeta function and beyond", Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 41(1), pp. 59112 (2004). 20. Tate, J.T. Fourier analysis in number _elds, and Hecke's zetafunctions, algebraic number theory", Proc. Instructional Conf., Brighton, 1965, pp. 305 347, (Thompson, Washington DC (1967). 21. Edwards, H.M., Riemann's Zeta Function, Academic Press, New York, USA (1974).' 22. Sierra, G. On the quantum reconstruction of the Riemann zeros", Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, 41(30), 304041 (2008). 23. Taylor, P.R. On the Riemann zeta function", The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, 16, pp. 121 (1945). 24. Hardy, G.H. and Littlewood, J.E. The zeros of Riemann's zetafunction on the critical line", Mathematische Zeitschrift, 10(34), pp. 283317 (1921). 25. Levinson, N. More than one third of zeros of Riemann's zetafunction are on _ = 1=2", Advances in Mathematics, 13(4), pp. 383436 (1974). 26. Conrey, J.B., Ghosh, A., and Gonek, S.M. Simple zeros of the Riemann zetafunction", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 76(3), pp. 497522 (1998). 27. Hardy, G.H. Sur les zeros de la fonction _ (s) de Riemann ", Comptes Rendus Mathematique Academie des Sciences, Paris, 158, pp. 10121014 (1914). 28. Van de Lune, J., te Riele, H.J., and Winter, D.T. On the zeros of the Riemann zeta function in the critical strip. IV", Mathematics of Computation, 46(174), pp. 667681 (1986). 29. Jacobi, C.G.J., Fundamenta Nova Theoriae Functionum Ellipticarum, Regiomonti, Borntraeger, Konigsberg, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA (2012). 30. Siegel, C.L., Advanced Analytic Number Theory, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (1980). 31. Gonzalez, M., Classical Complex Analysis, CRC Press, London (1991). 32. Rudin, W., Real and Complex Analysis, McGrawHill, New York (1987). 33. Churchill, R. and James W.B.W., Complex Variables and Applications, McGrawHill, New York, USA (1984). 34. Landau, E., Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, Teubner, Leipzig (1909).##]
1

A New Method to Determine the Collapse Capacity and Risk of RC Structures Incorporating Pulse Period Effect in NearFaultwith Considering Confinement ratio
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21438.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21438
1
Collapse capacity is one of the fundamental factors for evaluating of collapse risk in performancebased design engineering field. Calculation of this parameter has been time consuming during past decade. This issue has prevented engineers from determining this parameter in a prevalent and practical way. Furthermore, defining of this value has been found more challenging in a nearsource region due to special characteristics of its pulselike records which make the collapse capacity more dependent on period ratio, T/Tp. In this study, amethod is proposed to obtain collapse capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) structures considering two main variables effecting columns behavior: axial load ratio and confinement ratio. The mentioned methodeschews the intensive computational challenges of incremental dynamic analyses to find collapse probability. By the proposed approach, the pulse period impact is incorporated into collapse risk using probabilistic equations. After the role of axial load ratio was illustrated,the resulted collapse probability distributions and the corresponding risk values are obtained for a nearfault site. The resultsexplain that asthe confinement ratio descends, the collapse capacity with nearfault pulse effect is decreased and the risk values are raised consequently. In addition, the results are found in compliance with ASCE acceptable risk value.
0

2176
2186


H.
Shanehsazzadeh
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424, Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran.
Iran


M.
Tehranizadeh
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424, Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran.
Iran
tehz@govir.ir
collapse probability
Risk
nearfault
pulse period
confinement ratio
backbone behavior
axial load ratio
[1. Ellingwood, B.R. and Wen, Y. Riskbene_tbased design decisions for lowprobability/high consequence earthquake events in MidAmerica", Prog. Struct. Engng Mater, 7, pp. 5670 (2005). DOI:10.1002/pse.191 2. Luco, N., Ellingwood, B.R., Hamburger, R.O., Hooper, J.D., Kimball, J. K., and Kircher, C.A., Risktargeted versus current seismic design maps for the conterminous United States", SEAOC, Convention Proceedings (2007). 3. ASCE Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures", ASCE/SEI 716, American Society of Civil Engineers: Reston, Virginia (2016). 4. Applied Technology Council Quanti_cation of building seismic performance factors (FEMA P695)", NEHRP Recomended Provisions for Seismic Design of New Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P695, Federal Emergency Management Agency Washington, D.C (2009). 5. Judd, J. and Charney, F. Earthquake risk analysis of structures in structural dynamics", EURODYN 2014, A. Cunha, et al., Editors, Porto, Portugal, pp. 2929 2938 (2014). 6. Baker, J.W. Quantitative classi_cation of nearfault ground motions using wavelet analysis", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 97(5), pp. 14861501 (2007). 7. Baker, J.W. and Cornell, C.A. Vectorvalued intensity measures for pulselike nearfault ground motions", Engineering Structures, 30(4), pp. 10481057 (2008). 8. Tehranizadeh, M. and Shanehsazzadeh, H. Nearfault ampli_cation factor by using wavelet method", Research, Development and Practice in Structural Engineering and Construction (2011). DOI: 10.3850/978 9810879204 St350117 9. Tehranizadeh, M. and Shanehsazzadeh, H. Directivity e_ects on near fault ampli_cation factor", Urban Earthquake Engineering, Sharif university (April 2011). 10. Youse_, M. and Taghikhany, T. Incorporation of directivity e_ect in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and disaggregation of Tabriz city", Natural Hazards (2014). DOI 10.1007/s1106901410965 11. Shahi, S.K. and Baker, J.W. An e_cient algorithm to identify strong velocity pulses in multicomponent ground motions", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(5), pp. 24562466 (2014). 2186 H. Shanehsazzadeh and M. Tehranizadeh/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2176{2186 12. Haselton, C.B., Liel, A., Deierlein, G.G., Dean, B.S., and Chou, J.H. Seismic collapse safety of reinforced concrete buildings. I: Assessment of ductile moment frames", Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(4), pp. 481491 (2010). 13. Liel, A., Haselton, C.B., and Deierlein, G. Seismic collapse safety of reinforced concrete buildings. II: Comparative assessment of nonductile and ductile moment frames", Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(4), pp. 492502 (2010). 14. Champion, C. and Liel, A. The e_ect of nearfault directivity on building seismic collapse risk", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 41(10), pp. 1391 1409 (2012). 15. Champion, C. and Liel, A. The e_ect of nearfault directivity on building seismic collapse risk", Final Report to U.S. Geological Survey (Feb. 2010Jan. 2012). 16. Haselton, C.B., Liel, A., Lange, S., and Deierlein, G. Beamcolumn element model calibrated for predicting exural response leading to global collapse of RC frame buildings", PEER Report (2007). 17. Baltzopoulos, G., Vamvatsikos, D., and Iervolino, I. Analytical modelling of nearsource pulselike seismic demand for multilinear backbone oscillators", Earthquake Engng Struct. Dyn, Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) (2016). DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2729 18. Moshref, A., Tehranizadeh, M., and Khanmohammadi, M. Investigation of the reliability of nonlinear modeling approaches to capture the residual displacements of RC columns under seismic loading", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13(8), pp. 23272345 (August 2015). 19. Baltzopoulos, G. Structural performance evaluation in nearsource conditions", Doctorate Programme in Seismic Risk, XXVII cycle, Universit degliStudi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy, http://wpage. unina. it/iuniervo/doc en/Students.html (2015). 20. Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings", Standard No. 2800, 4th edition (2014).##]
1

Effect of creep on highorder shear deformable beams
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21359.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21359
1
A powerful and new theoretical approach is used to obtain an expression for the effect of creep on reinforced concrete shear deformable beams. First, a method for EulerBernulli beam is proposed to represent longterm behavior of concrete beams based on linear strain theory. Secondly, a formulation is developed for analyzing the strain distribution in shear deformable concrete beams. Finally, three numerical examples are included in order to compare wellknown codes with the proposed method. Comparison between proposed method, FEM, codes and experimental works demonstrate that the proposed analytical procedure can effectively simulate creep behavior in reinforced concrete beams.
0

2187
2202


M.
Ghabdian
Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran


S. B.
Beheshti Aval
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Iran


A.
Vafai
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
creep
concrete beam
strain distribution
shear deformable beam
kelvin chain model
[1. Wang, C.M., Reddy, J.N., and Lee K.H., Shear Deformable Beams and PlatesRelationships with Classical Solutions, UK, Elsevier (2000). 2. Levinson, M.A. New rectangular beam theory", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 74(1), pp. 8187 (1981). 3. Heyliger, P.R. and Reddy, J.N. A higher order beam _nite element for bending and vibration problems", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 126(2), pp. 309326 (1988). 4. Challamel, N. Highorder shear beam theories and enriched continuum", Mechanics Research Communications, 38(5), pp. 388392 (2011). 5. Sayyad, A.S. Comparison of various re_ned beam theories for the bending and free vibration analysis of thick beams", Applied and Computational Mechanics, 5(2), pp. 217230 (2011). 6. Sayyad, A.S. and Ghugal, Y.M. A uni_ed shear deformation theory for the bending of isotropic, functionally graded, laminated and sandwich beams and plates", International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 9(1), pp. 136 (2017). M. Ghabdian et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2187{2202 2199 7. Dongil, S., Soomin, C., Jang G.W., and Kim Y.Y. Highorder beam theory for static and vibration analysis of composite thinwalled box beam", Composite Structures, 206, pp. 140154 (2018). 8. Le, C.A. and Kosmatka, J.B. On the analysis of prismatic beams using _rstorder warping functions", International Journal of Solid and Structures, 29(7), pp. 879891 (1992). 9. Sayyad, A.S. Comparison of various re_ned beam theories for the bending and free vibration analysis of thick beams", Applied and Computational Mechanics, 5(2), pp. 217230 (2011). 10. Polizzotto, C. From the EulerBernoulli beam to the Timoshenko one through a sequence of Reddytype shear deformable beam models of increasing order", European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, 53, pp. 62 74 (2015). 11. Minera, S., Panti, M., Carrera, E., Petrolo, M., Weaver, P.M., and Pirrera, A. Threedimensional stress analysis for beamlike structures using Serendipity Lagrange shape functions", International Journal of Solid and Structures, 141142, pp. 279296 (2018). 12. Kim, M.S., Kim, H., Park, H., Ahn, N., and Lee, Y.H. Evaluation of shear behavior of deep beams with shear reinforced with GFRP plate", Scientia Iranica, 22(6), pp. 21422149 (2015). 13. Karaman, S.I. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams", PhD Dissertation, Department of civil engineering, University of She_eld, UK (2016). 14. Fib Model Code for Concrete Structures, Germany, Ernst & Sohn (2013). 15. Eurocode 2, Design of Concrete Structures  Part 11, General Rules and Rules for Building, Brussels. (2004). 16. ACI Committee 209R08, Guide for Modeling and Calculating Shrinkage and Creep in Hardened Concrete, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, USA (2008). 17. Bazant, Z.P. and Murphy W.P. Creep and shrinkage prediction model for analysis and design of concrete structuresmodel B3", Materiaux et Constructions, 28(180), pp. 357365 (1995). 18. Lakho, N.A. and Zadari, M.A. Longterm exural behavior of reinforced baked clay beams", Scientia Iranica, 24(3), pp. 877883 (2017). 19. Gilbert, R.I. and Ranzi, G., Timedependent Behavior of Concrete Structures, New York, Spon Press (2011). 20. Gilbert, R.I. Timedependent sti_ness of cracked reinforced and composite concrete slabs", Procedia Engineering, 57, pp. 1934 (2013). 21. Bazant, Z.P. Prediction of concrete creep e_ects using ageadjusted e_ective modulus method", Journal Proc., 69(4), pp. 212219 (1972). 22. Fernandez Ruiz, M., Muttoni, A., and Gambarova, P.G. Relationship between nonlinear creep and cracking of concrete under uniaxial compression", Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 5(3), pp. 383393 (2007). 23. Tasevski, D., Fernandez Ruiz, M., and Muttoni, A. Compressive strength and deformation capacity of concrete under sustained loading and low stress rates", Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 16, pp. 396 415 (2018). 24. Anis, M.A., Farid, B.J., and AlJanabi, A.I.M. Stressstrain relationship for concrete in compression mode of local materials", JKAU. Engineering Science, 2, pp. 183194 (1990). 25. Gilbert, R.I. Calculation of longterm deection", CIA Seminar, Brisbane (April 2008). 26. Reybrouck, N., Criel, P., Mullem, T.V., and Caspeele, R. Longterm data of reinforced concrete beams subjected to high sustained loads and simpli_ed prediction method", Structural Concrete, 18(6), pp. 850861 (2017). 27. Lubliner, J., Oliver, J., Oller, S., and Onate E. A plasticdamage model for concrete", International Journal of Solid and Structures, 25(1), pp. 299329 (1989). 28. Qiang, Y., Bazant, Z.P., and Wendner, R. Improved algorithm for e_cient and realistic creep analysis of large creepsensitive concrete structures", ACI Structural Journal, 109(5), pp. 665675 (2012). 29. ACI Committee 31814, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, USA (2014). ##]
1

Optimum recovery time for cyclic compression tests on bovine brain tissue
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21418.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21418
1
In conducting mechanical tests on the brain tissue, it is preferred to perform multiple tests on the same sample. In this study we investigated the behavior of the bovine brain tissue in repeated compression tests with six recovery periods (10, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 s). Compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples with an average diameter and height of 18.0 mm and 15.0 mm respectively. Two testing protocols were employed: first protocol comprised of experiments with 5, 25 and 125 mm/min loading speed up to 33% strain and the second protocol consisted of tests with 25 and 125 mm/min loading speed up to 17% strain. Each experiment was conducted in two cycles separated by a specific recovery period. Stressstrain data from the first and second cycles were compared using three criteria, namely Normalized rootmeansquare error (NRMSE), coefficient of variation (R2) and effective height ratio (EHR). The analysis suggests that the optimum recovery period for the first and second protocols are 120 s and 180 s respectively. Moreover, differences between the first and second cycles of medium and high speed tests were found to be smaller compared to the lowspeed experiments.
0

2203
2211


M.
Mohajery
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Iran


M.T.
Ahmadian
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ahmadian@sharif.ir
Recovery time
Preconditioning effect
Strain history
Brain tissue modeling
Bovine brain tissue
[1. Cloots, R.J.H., Van Dommelen, J.A.W., Kleiven, S., and Geers, M.G.D. Multiscale mechanics of traumatic brain injury: Predicting axonal strains from head loads", Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol., 12(1), pp. 137150 (2013). 2. Friedman, R., Epstein, Y., and Gefen, A., Traumatic Brain Injury in the Military: Biomechanics and Finite Element Modelling BT  The Mechanobiology and Mechanophysiology of MilitaryRelated Injuries, A. Gefen and Y. Epstein, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 209233 (2016). 3. Sahoo, D., Deck, C., Yoganandan, N., and Willinger, R. Development of skull fracture criterion based on realworld head trauma simulations using _nite ele2210 M. Mohajery and M.T. Ahmadian/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2203{2211 ment head model", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 57, pp. 2441 (2016). 4. Clark, J.M., Hoshizaki, T.B., and Gilchrist, M.D. Assessing women's lacrosse head impacts using _nite element modelling", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 80, pp. 2026 (2018). 5. Kansal, A.R., Torquato, S., Harsh IV, G.R., Chiocca, E.A., and Deisboeck, T.S. Simulated brain tumor growth dynamics using a threedimensional cellular automaton", J. Theor. Biol., 203(4), pp. 367382 (2000). 6. Wong, K.C.L., Summers, R.M., Kebebew, E., and Yao, J. Tumor growth prediction with reactiondi_usion and hyperelastic biomechanical model by physiological data fusion", Med. Image Anal., 25(1), pp. 7285 (2015). 7. Hrapko, M., Van Dommelen, J.A., Peters, G.W., and Wismans, J.S. The inuence of test conditions on characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue", J. Biomech. Eng., 130(3), p. 31003 (2008). 8. Cheng, S., Clarke, E.C., and Bilston, L.E. Rheological properties of the tissues of the central nervous system: A review", Med. Eng. Phys., 30(10), pp. 13181337 (Dec. 2008). 9. Miller, K. and Chinzei, K. Constitutive modelling of brain tissue: Experiment and theory", J. Biomech., 30(1112), pp. 11151121 (1997). 10. Miller, K. and Chinzei, K. Mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension", J. Biomech., 35(4), pp. 483 490 (2002). 11. Jin, X., Zhu, F., Mao, H., Shen, M., and Yang, K.H. A comprehensive experimental study on material properties of human brain tissue", J. Biomech., 46(16), pp. 27952801 (2013). 12. Budday, S., Nay, R., De Rooij, R., et al. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 46, pp. 318330 (2015). 13. Rashid, B., Destrade, M., and Gilchrist, M.D. Mechanical characterization of brain tissue in tension at dynamic strain rates", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 33(1), pp. 4354 (2014). 14. Budday, S., Sommer, G., Birkl, C., et al. Mechanical characterization of human brain tissue", Acta Biomater., 48, pp. 319340 (2017). 15. Bilston, L.E., Liu, Z., and PhanThien, N. Linear viscoelastic properties of bovine brain tissue in shear", Biorheology, 34(6), pp. 377385 (1997). 16. Van Dommelen, J.A.W., Van Der Sande, T.P.J., Hrapko, M., and Peters, G.W.M. Mechanical properties of brain tissue by indentation: Interregional variation", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 3(2), pp. 158166 (2010). 17. Destrade, M., Gilchrist, M.D., Murphy, J.G., Rashid, B., and Saccomandi, G. Extreme softness of brain matter in simple shear", Int. J. Non. Linear. Mech., 75, pp. 5458 (2015). 18. Labus, K.M. and Puttlitz, C.M. Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension", J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 96, pp. 591604 (2016). 19. Fung, Y.C., Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Springer New York (1993). 20. Gefen, A. and Margulies, S.S. Are in vivo and in situ brain tissues mechanically similar?", J. Biomech., 37(9), pp. 13391352 (2004). 21. Carew, E.O., Barber, J.E., and Vesely, I. Role of preconditioning and recovery time in repeated testing of aortic valve tissues: Validation through quasilinear viscoelastic theory", Ann. Biomed. Eng., 28(9), pp. 10931100 (Sep. 2000). 22. Hubbard, R.P. and Chun, K. Mechanical responses of tendons to repeated extensions and wait periods", J. Biomech. Eng., 110, pp. 1119 (Feb. 1988). 23. Sverdlik, A. and Lanir, Y. Timedependent mechanical behavior of sheep digital tendons, including the e_ects of preconditioning", J. Biomech. Eng., 124(1), pp. 7884 (2002). 24. Lanir, Y. and Fung, Y.C. Twodimensional mechanical properties of rabbit skinII. Experimental results", J. Biomech., 7(2), pp. 171182 (1974). 25. Vogel, H.G. and Denkel, K. In Vivo recovery of mechanical properties in rat skin after repeated strain", Arch. Dermatol. Res., 277(6), pp. 484488 (1985). 26. Remache, D., Caliez, M., Gratton, M., and Dos Santos, S. The e_ects of cyclic tensile and stressrelaxation tests on porcine skin", J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 77, pp. 242249 (2018). 27. Prange, M.T. and Margulies, S.S. Regional, directional, and agedependent properties of the brain undergoing large deformation", J. Biomech. Eng., 124(2), p. 244 (2002). 28. Prevost, T.P., Balakrishnan, A., Suresh, S., and Socrate, S. Biomechanics of brain tissue", Acta Biomater., 7(1), pp. 8395 (2011). 29. Prevost, T.P., Jin, G., De Moya, M.A., Alam, H.B., Suresh, S., and Socrate, S. Dynamic mechanical response of brain tissue in indentation in vivo, in situ and in vitro", Acta Biomater., 7(12), pp. 40904101 (2011). 30. Cheng, S. and Bilston, L.E. Uncon_ned compression of white matter", J. Biomech., 40(1), pp. 117124 (2007).##]
1

Development of Fragility Curves for Existing Residential Steel Buildings with Concentrically Braced Frames
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21498.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21498
1
The objective of this study is to develop analytical fragility curves for an ensemble of 3 to 6story existing residential steel buildings with concentrically braced frames in two directions, designed during 2010 and 2015, and located in Qazvin, Iran. The buildings are modeled threedimensionally in the OpenSees, considering braces buckling behavior. Maximum interstory drift ratio ( ) and spectral acceleration at fundamental period of the structure with 5% viscous damping ( ) are considered as Damage index ( ) and Intensity measure ( ), respectively. Limit states are specified as discussed in FEMA 356. Ground motion record selection and uncertainties assessment is carried out based on FEMA P695 methodology. Analysis is performed using truncated incremental dynamic analysis ( ). Fragility function is defined as a lognormal cumulative distribution function ( ) and maximum likelihood method is used to estimate fragility parameters. According to the fragility curves obtained, seismic vulnerability of the structures is generally increased as the number of stories rises. Concentration of the inelasticity is also found to be mainly at the first story level. The results also confirm the fact that the record to record variability is the main source of uncertainty in structural probabilistic evaluation.
0

2212
2228


A.
Bakhshi
Development of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 111559313, Iran.
Iran


H.
Soltanieh
Development of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 111559313, Iran.
Iran
Analytical fragility curve
steel concentrically braced frames
OpenSees
FEMA 356
FEMA P695
truncated IDA
Maximum Likelihood Method
[1. BHRC Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings: Standard no. 2800. 3rd ed", Building and Housing Research Center (2005). 2. Erberik, M.A. and Elnashai, A.S., Seismic Vulnerability of FlatSlab Structures, MidAmerica Earthquake Center CD Release 0306 (2003). 3. Kumar, S.A., Rajaram, C., Mishra, S., Kumar, R.P., and Karnath, A. Rapid visual screening of di_erent housing typologies in Himachal Pradesh, India", Natural Hazards, 85(3), pp. 18511875 (2017). 4. Del Gaudio, C., De Martino, G., Di Ludovico, M., Manfredi, G., Prota, A., Ricci, P., and Verderame, G.M. Empirical fragility curves from damage data on RC buildings after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(4), pp. 1425 1450 (2017). 5. TomaDanila, D. and Arma_s, I. Insights into the possible seismic damage of residential buildings in Bucharest, Romania, at neighborhood resolution", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(3), pp. 1161 1184 (2017). 6. Tavakoli, B. and Tavakoli, A. Estimating the vulnerability and loss functions of residential buildings", Natural Hazards, 7(2), pp. 155171 (1993). 7. JICA, C. The study on seismic microzoning of the greater Tehran area in the Islamic Republic of Iran", Final Report to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tokyo, Japan (2000). 8. Mostafaei, H. and Kabeyasawa, T. Investigation and analysis of damage to buildings during the 2003 Bam earthquake", Bulletin of Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 79, pp. 107132 (2004). 9. Bakhshi, A. and Karimi, K. Performance evaluation of masonry buildings using a probabilistic approach", Scientia Iranica, 15(3), pp. 295307 (2008). 10. Jalalian, M. Deriving of empirical vulnerability functions for Iran", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2006). 11. Kazemi, H., GhaforyAshtiany, M., and Azarbakht, A. E_ect of epsilonbased record selection on fragility curves of typical irregular steel frames with concrete shear walls in Mashhad city", International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 5(1), p. 23 (2013). 12. Sadeghi, M., GhaforyAshtiany, M., and PakdelLahiji, N. Developing seismic vulnerability curves for typical Iranian buildings", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, 229(6), pp. 627640 (2015). A. Bakhshi and H. Soltanieh/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2212{2228 2227 13. Kazemi, H., GhaforyAshtiany, M., and Azarbakht, A. Development of fragility curves by incorporating new spectral shape indicators and a weighted damage index: case study of steel braced frames in the city of Mashhad, Iran", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 16(2), pp. 383395 (2017). 14. Izanloo, F. and Yahyaabadi, A. Determination of structural fragility curves of various building types for seismic vulnerability assessment in the Sarpole Zahab City", Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 20(3), pp. 93107 (2019). 15. MHUD, Iranian National Building Code, Part 6, Design Loads for Buildings, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran (2009). 16. MHUD, Iranian National Building Code, Part 10, Steel Structure Design, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran, Iran (2009). 17. TABS, Extended Three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems, Computers and Structures, Inc (2011). 18. McKenna, F. OpenSees: a framework for earthquake engineering simulation", Computing in Science & Engineering, 13(4), pp. 5866 (2011). 19. Uriz, P. and Mahin, S.A. Toward earthquakeresistant design of concentrically braced steelframe structures", PEER rep no. 2008/08. Paci_c Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley (2008). 20. Soltanieh, H. Development of fragility curves for a number of existing buildings in Qazvin", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2016). 21. Kinali, K. and Ellingwood, B.R. Seismic fragility assessment of steel frames for consequence based engineering: A case study for Memphis, TN", Engineering Structures, 29(6), pp. 11151127 (2007). 22. Berm_udez, C.A., Barbat, A.H., Pujades, L.G., and Gonz_alezDrigo, J.R. Seismic vulnerability and fragility of steel buildings", In Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2008). 23. Kazantzi, A.K., Righiniotis, T.D., and Chryssanthopoulos, M.K. The e_ect of joint ductility on the seismic fragility of a regular moment resisting steel frame designed to EC8 provisions", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(9), pp. 987996 (2008). 24. Li, Q. and Ellingwood, B.R. Damage inspection and vulnerability analysis of existing buildings with steel momentresisting frames", Engineering Structures, 30(2), pp. 338351 (2008). 25. Ellingwood, B.R. and Kinali, K. Quantifying and communicating uncertainty in seismic risk assessment", Structural Safety, 31(2), pp. 179187 (2009). 26. Majd, M., Hosseini, M., and MoeinAmini, A. Developing fragility curves for steel building with Xbracing by nonlinear time history analyses", In 15th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Lisboa (2012). 27. Akbari, R., Aboutalebi, M.H., and Maheri, M.R. Seismic fragility assessment of steel Xbraced and chevronbraced RC frames", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Bhrc), 16(1), pp. 1327 (2015). 28. Kiani, A., Mansouri, B., and Moghadam, A.S. Fragility curves for typical steel frames with semirigid saddle connections", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 118, pp. 231242 (2016). 29. Banihashemi, M.R., Mirzagoltabar, A.R., and Tavakoli, H.R. Reliability and fragility curve assessment of steel concentrically braced frames", European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 20(7), pp. 748770 (2016). 30. Li, G., Dong, Z.Q., Li, H.N., and Yang, Y. B. Seismic collapse analysis of concentricallybraced frames by the ida method", Advanced Steel Construction, 13(3), pp. 273292 (2017). 31. Choi, K.S., Park, J.G., and Kim, H.J. Numerical investigation on design requirements for steel ordinary braced frames", Engineering Structures, 137, pp. 296 309 (2017). 32. D__az, S.A., Pujades, L.G., Barbat, A.H., Hidalgo Leiva, D.A., and VargasAlzate, Y.F. Capacity, damage and fragility models for steel buildings: a probabilistic approach", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3), pp. 12091243 (2018). 33. Fattahi, F. and Gholizadeh, S. Seismic fragility assessment of optimally designed steel moment frames", Engineering Structures, 179, pp. 3751 (2019). 34. Sinha, R. and Shiradhonkar, S.R. Seismic damage index for classi_cation of structural damageclosing the loop", In the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2012). 35. Bani Asadi, A. Application of damage indices in seismic analysis of concrete frames using endurance time method", M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (2012). 36. Pitilakis, K., Argyroudis, S., Kakderi, K., Argyroudis, A., Crowley, H., and Taucer, F., Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Analysis for Buildings, Lifeline Networks and Infrastructures Safety Gain, Publications O_ce of the European Union (2013). 37. Mackie, K. and Stojadinovi_c, B., Seismic Demands for PerformanceBased Design of Bridges, Paci_c Earthquake Engineering Research Center (2003). 38. Fathieh, A. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of modular steel buildings in two and three dimensions", Doctoral dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto (2013). 39. FEMA, P695, Quanti_cation of Building Seismic Performance Factors, prepared by the Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (2009). 2228 A. Bakhshi and H. Soltanieh/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2212{2228 40. http://peer.berkeley.edu/products/strong ground motion db.html 41. Lee, T.H. and Mosalam, K.M. Seismic demand sensitivity of reinforced concrete shearwall building using FOSM method", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(14), pp. 17191736 (2005). 42. Koutromanos, I. and Shing, P.S. Example application of the FEMA P695 (ATC63) methodology for the collapse performance evaluation of reinforced masonry shear wall structures", In Proc., 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conf. on Earthquake Engineering (2010). 43. Donovan, L.T. and Memari, A.M. Determination of seismic performance factors for structural insulated panel shear walls based on FEMA P695 methodology", PHRC Research Series Rep, 110 (2011). 44. Pragalath, D.H. and Sarkar, R.D.P. Reliability evaluation of RC frame by two major fragility analysis methods", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (BHRC), 16(1), pp. 4766 (2015). 45. Siyam, M. Seismic performance assessment of ductile reinforced concrete block structural walls", Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, McMaster University, Ontario (2016). 46. Hsiao, P.C., Lehman, D.E., and Roeder, C.W. A model to simulate special concentrically braced frames beyond brace fracture", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 42(2), pp. 183200 (2013). 47. Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M., and Fenves, G., Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSEES) User CommandLanguage Manual, Paci _c Earthquake Engineering Research Center., University of California, Berkeley (2006). 48. Vamvatsikos, D. Seismic performance, capacity and reliability of structures as seen through incremental dynamic analysis", Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, PaloAlto, CA (2002). 49. Baker, J.W. E_cient analytical fragility function _tting using dynamic structural analysis", Earthquake Spectra, 31(1), pp. 579599 (2015). 50. FEMA, Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA356, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (2000). 51. MATLAB, The Language of Technical Programming, the Mathworks Inc (2010). 52. Vamvatsikos, D. and Cornell, C.A. Direct estimation of seismic demand and capacity of multidegreeoffreedom systems through incremental dynamic analysis of single degree of freedom approximation", Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(4), pp. 589599 (2005).##]
1

Numerical modeling of particle motion and deposition in turbulent wavy channel flows
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21405.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21405
1
This work investigates the turbulent flow and particles deposition in wavy duct flows. The v2f turbulence model was used for simulating the turbulent flow through the wavy channel. The instantaneous turbulence fluctuating velocities were simulated using the Kraichnan Gaussian random field model. For tracking particles in the fluid flow, the particle equation of motion was solved numerically. The drag, Saffman lift, Brownian, and gravity forces acting on a suspended particle were included in the particle equation of motion. The effects of duct wave amplitude and wave length on deposition of particles of different sizes were studied. A range of waves with different amplitudes and wave lengths were simulated. The particle tracking approach was validated for turbulent flow in a flat horizontal channel where good agreement with previous studies was found. The presented results showed that the duct wavy walls significantly increase the particle deposition rate.
0

2229
2240


H.
Hayati
Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran


A.
Soltani Goharrizi
Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran


M.
Salmanzadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Iran
msalmanz@uk.ac.ir


G.
Ahmadi
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA
United States
ahmadi@clarkson.edu
particle deposition
Wavy channel
turbulent flow
v2f turbulence model
aerosols
[1. Wood, N.B. A simple method for the calculation of turbulent deposition to smooth and rough surfaces", Aerosol Sci., 12, pp. 275290 (1981). 2. Fan, F.G. and Ahmadi, G. A sublayer model for turbulent deposition of particles in vertical ducts with smooth and rough surfaces", Aerosol Sci., 24, pp. 45 64 (1992). 3. Li, A. and Ahmadi, G. Computer simulation of deposition of aerosols in a turbulent channel ow with rough walls", Aerosol Science and Technology, 18(1), pp. 1124 (1993). 4. Tian, L. and Ahmadi, G. Particle deposition in turbulent duct ows  comparison of di_erent model prediction", Aerosol Science, 38, pp. 377397 (2007). 5. Zhang, Z. and Chen, Q. Prediction of particle deposition onto indoor surfaces by CFD with a modi_ed Lagrangian method", Atmospheric Environment, 43, pp. 319328 (2009). H. Hayati et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2229{2240 2239 6. Gao, R. and Li, A. Modeling deposition of particles in vertical square ventilation duct ows", Building and Environment, 46, pp. 245252 (2010). 7. Sun, K., Lu, L., and Jiang, H. A computational investigation of particle distribution and deposition in a 900 bend incorporating a particlewall model", Building and Environment, 46, pp. 12511262 (2010). 8. Gao, N., Niu, J., Zhu, T., and Wu, J. Using RANS in turbulent models and Lagrangian approach to predict particle deposition in turbulent channel ows", Building and Environment, 48, pp. 206214 (2012). 9. Majlesara, M., Salmanzadeh, M., and Ahmadi, G. A model for particles deposition in turbulent inclined channels", Journal of Aerosol Science, 64, pp. 3747 (2013). 10. Cherukat, P., Na, Y., and Hanratty, T.J. Direct numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent ow over a wavy wall", Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics, 11, pp. 109134 (1998). 11. Yoon, H.S., ElSamni, O.A., Huynh, A.T., et al. E_ect of wave amplitude on turbulent ow in a wavy channel by direct numerical simulation", Ocean Engineering, 36, pp. 697707 (2009). 12. Errico, O. and Stalio, E. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent forced convection in a wavy channel at low and order one Prandtl number", International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 86, pp. 374386 (2014). 13. Lu, H. and Lu, L. Numerical investigation on particle deposition enhancement in duct air ow by ribbed wall", Building and Environment, 85, pp. 6172 (2014). 14. Lu, H. and Lu, L. A numerical study of particle deposition in ribbed duct ow with di_erent rib shapes", Building and Environment, 94, pp. 4353 (2015). 15. Ni, P., Jonsson, L.T.I., Ersson, M., and Jonsson, P.G. Deposition of particles in liquid ows in horizontal straight channels", International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 62, pp. 166173 (2016). 16. Wang, F., Zhang, E., andWang, J. A study of particle deposition in ventilation ducts with convex or concave wall cavity", Procedia Engineering, 205, pp. 32853292 (2017). 17. Dritselis, C.D. Numerical study of particle deposition in a turbulent channel ow with transverse roughness elements on one wall", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 91, pp. 118 (2017). 18. Dritselis, C.D. On the enhancement of particle deposition in turbulent channel airow by a ribbed wall", Advanced Powder Technology, 28, pp. 922931 (2017). 19. Li, Y., Gu, W.,Wang, D., and He, J. Direct numerical simulation of polydisperse aerosol particles deposition in low Reynolds number turbulent ow", Annals of Nuclear Energy, 12(1), pp. 223231 (2018). 20. Ho, P.Y., Cheng, C.K., and Huang, K.H. Combined e_ects of thermophoresis and electrophoresis on particle deposition in mixed convection ow onto a vertical wavy plate", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 101, pp. 116121 (2019). 21. Gu, W., Wang, D., Li, Y., He, J., and He, Y. A stochastic method in simulating particles transport and deposition in wallbounded turbulent ow", Annals of Nuclear Energy, 127, pp. 1218 (2019). 22. Lu, H., Zhang, L.Z., Lu, L., and Pan, A. Numerical investigation on monodispersed particle deposition in turbulent duct ow with thermophoresis", Energy Procedia, 158, pp. 57115716 (2019). 23. Wang, Y., Yao, J., and Zhao, Y. Large eddy simulation of particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent duct ows", Advanced Powder Technology, 30(3), pp. 656671 (2019). 24. Durbin, P.A. Nearwall turbulent closure modeling without damping function", Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics, 3, pp. 113 (1991). 25. Kraichnan, R.H. Di_usion by random velocity _eld", Phys. Fluids, 11, pp. 2231 (1970). 26. Davies, J.T., Turbulence Phenomena, Academic Press, New York (1972). 27. Sa_man, P.G. The lift on a small sphere in a slow shear ow", J. uid Mech., 22, pp. 385400 (1965). 28. Philips, D.A., Rossi, R., and Iaccarino, G. The inuence of normal stress anisotropy in predicting scalar dispersion with the v2f model", International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 32, pp. 943963 (2011). 29. Moser, R.D., Kim, J., and Mansour, N.N. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel ow up to Re_ = 590", Phys. Fluids, 11, pp. 943945 (1999). 30. Ounis, H., Ahmadi, G., and Mclaughlin, J.B. Brownian particle deposition in a directly simulated turbulent channel ow", Physics of Fluids A, 5, pp. 14271432 (1993). 31. Hudson, J.D. The e_ect of a wavy boundary on turbulent ow", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA (1993). 32. Montogomery, T.L. and Corn, M. Aerosol particle deposition in a pipe with turbulent ows", Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 62, pp. 185194 (1970). 33. Kvansak, W., Ahmadi, G., Bayer, R., and Gaynes, M. Experimental investigation of duct particle deposition in a turbulent channel ow", Journal of Aerosol Science, 24, pp. 795815 (1993).##]
1

Constraint Control Method of Optimization and its Application to Design of Steel Frames
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21442.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21442
1
Different optimization methods are available for optimum design of structures including; classical optimization techniques and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. However, engineers do not generally use optimization techniques to design a structure. They attempt to decrease the structural weight and increase its performance and efficiency, empirically, by changing the variables and controlling the constraints. Based on this professional engineering design philosophy, in this paper, a simple algorithm, termed the Constraint Control Method (CCM), is developed and presented whereby optimum design is achieved gradually by controlling the problem constraints. Starting with oversized sections, the design is gradually improved by changing sections based on a ‘control function’ and controlling the constraints to be below the target values. As the constraints move towards their targets, the design moves towards an optimum. The general functionality of the proposed algorithm is first demonstrated by solving several linear and nonlinear mathematical problems which have exact answers. The performance of the algorithm is then evaluated through comparing design optimization results of three, 2D steel frame benchmark problems with those from other, metaheuristic optimization solutions. the proposed method leads to the minimum structural weight while performing much smaller number of structural analyses, compared to other optimization methods.
0

2241
2257


S.F.
Mansouri
Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran


M.R.
Maheri
Department of Civil Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Iran
constraint control method
Optimum design
Steel frames
metaheuristic optimization algorithms
global search
[1. Razani, R. Behavior of fully stressed design of structures and its relationship to minimum weight design", AIAA J., 3(12), pp. 22622268 (1965). 2. Gallagher, R.H. and Zienkiewicz, O.C., Fully Stressed Design. Optimum Structural Design, John Wiley & Sons, London (1973). 3. Patnaik, S.N. and Hopkins, D.A. Optimality of a fully stress design", Comput Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 165, pp. 215221 (1998). 4. Haftka, R.T. and Starnes, J.H. Applications of a quadratic extended interior penalty function for structural optimization", AIAA J., 14, pp. 718724 (1976). 5. Baugh Jr., J.W., Caldwell, S.C., and Brill Jr., E.D. A mathematical programming approach to generate alternatives in discrete structural optimization", Eng. Optim., 28, pp. 131 (1997). 6. Brill Jr., E.D., Flach, J.M., Hopkins, L.D., and Ranjithan, S. MGA: A decision support for complex, incompletely de_ned problems", IEEE Trans. Systems, Man. Cybernet., 20(4), pp. 745757 (1990). 7. Kripakaran, P., Hall, B., and Gupta, A. A genetic algorithm for design of momentresisting steel frames", Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 44(4), pp. 559574 (2011). 8. Flager, F., Soremekun, G., Adya, A., Shea, K., Haymaker, J., and Fischer, M. Fully constrained design: A general and scalable method for discrete member sizing optimization of steel truss structures", Comput. Struct., 140, pp. 5565 (2014). 9. Azad, S.K. and Hasan_cebi, O. Computationally e_ cient discrete sizing of steel frames via guided stochastic search heuristic", Comput. Struct., 156, pp. 1228 (2015). 10. Mahallati Rayeni, A., Ghohani Arab, H., and Ghasemi, M.R. Optimization of steel moment frame by a proposed evolutionary algorithm", Int. J. Optim. Civil Eng., 8(4), pp. 511 524 (2018). 2256 S.F. Mansouri and M.R. Maheri/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2241{2257 11. Goldberg, D.E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning, MA: Addison Wesley (1989). 12. Dorigo, M., Maniezzo, V., and Colorni, A. The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents", IEEE Trans. System Man. Cybernet., 26(1), pp. 2941 (1996). 13. Fourie, P. and Groenwold, A. The particle swarm optimization algorithm in size and shape optimization", Struct Multidiscip Optim., 23, pp. 259267 (2002). 14. Geem, Z.W., Kim, J.H., and Loganathan, G.V. A new heuristic optimization algorithm", Harmony Search Simul., 76, pp. 6088 (2001). 15. Kaveh, A. and Talatahari, S. Optimum design of skeletal structures using imperialist competitive algorithm", Comput Struct., 88, pp. 12201229 (2010). 16. Bozorg Haddad, O. and Afshar, A. MBO (Marriage Bees Optimization), a new heuristic approach in hydrosystems design and operation", Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Managing Rivers in the 21st Century: Issues and Challenges., Penang, Malaysia, pp. 499504 (2004). 17. To_gan, V. Design of planar steel frames using teachinglearning based optimization", Eng. Struct., 34, pp. 225232 (2012). 18. Glover, F. Heuristic for integer programming using surrogate constraints", Decis. Sci., 8(1), pp. 156166 (1977). 19. Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C., and Vecchi, M. Optimization by simulated annealing", Science, 220(4598), pp. 671680 (1983). 20. Safari, D., Maheri, M.R., and Maheri, A. Optimum design of steel frames using a multipledeme PGA with improved reproduction operators", J Constr Steel Res., 67(8), pp. 12321243 (2011). 21. Maheri, M.R., Askarian, M., and Shojaee, S. Size and topology optimization of trusses using hybrid geneticparticle swarm algorithms", Iranian J. Sci Tech: Trans Civil Eng., 40(3), pp. 179193 (2016). 22. Kaveh, A. and Mahjoubi, S. Lion pride optimization algorithm: A metaheuristic method for global optimization problems", Scientia Iranica, 25, pp. 3113 3132 (2018). 23. Maheri, MR. and Narimani, M.M. An enhanced harmony search algorithm for optimum design of side sway steel frames", Comput Struct., 136, pp. 7889 (2014). 24. Maheri, M.R. and Talezadeh, M. An enhanced imperialist competitive algorithm for optimum design of skeletal structures", Swarm Evolut Comput., 40, pp. 2436 (2018). 25. Maheri, M.R., Shokrian, H., and Narimani, M.M. An enhanced honey bee mating optimization algorithm for design of side sway steel frames", Adv Eng Software, 109, pp. 6272 (2017). 26. Kaveh, A. and Dadras, A. Optimal decomposition of _nite element meshes via kmedian methodology and di_erent metaheuristics", Int. J. Optim. Civil Eng., 8(2), pp. 227246 (2018). 27. Kaveh, A., Mahjoubi, S., and Ghazaan, M. Comparison of four metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of doublelayer barrel vaults", Int. J. Space Struct., 33(34), pp. 115123 (2018). 28. Gerist, S. and Maheri, M.R. Structural damage detection using imperialist competitive algorithm", Applied Soft Computing., 77, pp. 123 (2019). 29. Saka, M.P. Optimum design of skeletal structures: a review", In Topping B.H.V, editor, Progress in Civil and Structural Engineering Computing, Stirlingshire, UK: SaxeCoburg Publications; pp. 23784, Chapter 10 (2003). 30. Lamberti, L. and Pappalettere, C. Metaheuristic design optimization of skeletal structures: a review", Comput. Technol. Rev., 4, pp. 132 (2011). 31. Saka, M.P. and Do_gan, E. Recent developments in metaheuristic algorithms: a review", Comput Technol Rev., 5, pp. 3178 (2012). 32. Frederick, S.H. and Gerald, J.L., Introduction to Operations Research, 9th. Ed. New York, McGraw Hill (2010). 33. American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction: Load and Resistance Factor Design, Chicago (2001). 34. Pezeshk, S., Camp, C.V., and Chen, D. Design of nonlinear framed structures using genetic algorithms", J Struct Eng. ASCE, 126(3), pp. 382388 (2000). 35. Camp, C.V., Bichon, B.J., and Stovall, S.P. Design of steel frames using ant colony optimization", J. Struct Eng. ASCE, 131(3), pp. 369379 (2005). 36. De_gertekin, S.O. Optimum design of steel frames using harmony search algorithm", Struct Multi Optim., 36, pp. 393401 (2008). 37. Safari, D., Maheri, M.R., and Maheri, A. On the performance of a modi_ed multideme genetic algorithm in LRFD design of steel frames", Iran J Sci. Tech.: Trans Civil Eng., 37, pp. 169190 (2013). 38. Kaveh, A. and Talatahari, S. An improved ant colony optimization for the design of planar steel frames", Eng Struct., 32, pp. 864873 (2010). 39. Do_gan, E. and Saka, M.P. Optimum design of unbraced steel frames to LRFDAISC using particle swarm optimization", Adv Eng Software, 46, pp. 2734 (2012). 40. Dumonteil, P. Simple equations for e_ective length factors", Eng. J. AISE, 29(3), pp. 111115 (1992).##]
1

A new higherorder strainbased plane element
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21429.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21429
1
A new higherorder triangular plane element with drilling degrees of freedom is proposed by assumption of secondorder strain field. In addition to inclusion of drilling degrees of freedom and utilization of higherorder assumes strains, satisfaction of equilibrium equations improves performance of the suggested element in comparison with many of the other available elements. After proposition of the new element, a series of benchmark problems are solved to evaluate performance of the suggested element. Accuracy and efficiency of the suggested element is compared with other strainbased plane elements. Detailed discussions are offered after each benchmark problem. Finally, based on the attained results, a final conclusion about characteristics of robust membrane elements is made.
0

2258
2275


M.
RezaieePajand
School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
Iran
mrpajand@yahoo.com


N.
GharaeiMoghaddam
School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
Iran


MR.
Ramezani
School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
Iran
Strainbased formulation
secondorder strain field, equilibrium condition, numerical evaluation, drilling degrees of freedom
[1. Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Taylor, R.L., The Finite Element Method for Solid and Structural Mechanics, Elsevier (2005). 2. Hughes, T.J.R., Taylor, R.L., and Kanoknukulchai, W. A simple and e_cient _nite element for plate bending", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 11(10), pp. 15291543 (1977). 3. Reddy, J.N., An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, New York, USA: McGrawHill (1993). 4. RezaieePajand, M. and GharaeiMoghaddam, N. Analysis of 3D Timoshenko frames having geometrical and material nonlinearities", Int. J. of Mech. Sci., 94, pp. 140155 (2015). 5. RezaieePajand, M. and GharaeiMoghaddam, N. Frame nonlinear analysis by force method", Int. J. Ste. Str., 17(2), pp. 609629 (2017). 6. RezaieePajand, M. and GharaeiMoghaddam, N. Using corotational method for cracked frame analysis", Meccanica, 53(8), pp. 21212143 (2018). 7. RezaieePajand, M. and GharaeiMoghaddam, N. Forcebased curved beam elements with open radial edge cracks", Mech. Adv. Mater. Struc., pp. 113 (2018). DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2018.1472326 8. RezaieePajand, M. and GharaeiMoghaddam, N. Vibration and static analysis of cracked and noncracked nonprismatic frames by force formulation", Eng. Str., 185, pp. 106121 (2019). 9. Sabir, A.B. A rectangular and triangular plane elasticity element with drilling degrees of freedom", 2nd Int. Conf. on Var. Meth. in Engrg., Southampton, UK, pp. 1725 (1985). 10. Sabir, A.B. and Sfendji, A. Triangular and rectangular plane elasticity _nite elements", Thin. Wall. Struct., 21(3), pp. 225232 (1995). 11. Tayeh, S.M., New StrainBased Triangular and Rectangular Finite Elements for Plane Elasticity Problems, The Islamic University of Gaza (2003). 12. Belarbi, M.T. and Bourezane, M. On improved Sabir triangular element with drilling rotation", Rev. Europ. G_en. Civ., 9(910), pp. 11511175 (2005). 13. Belarbi, M.T. and Bourezane, M. An assumed strain based on triangular element with drilling rotation", Cour. Sav., 6, pp. 117123 (2005). 14. Belarbi, M.T. and Maalem, T. On improved rectangular _nite element for plane linear elasticity analysis", Rev. Europ. El_em., 14(8), pp. 985997 (2005). 15. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. Formulating an e_ective generalized foursided element", Eur. J. Mech. ASolid, 36, pp. 141155 (2012). 16. Rezaiee Pajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. A free of parasitic shear strain formulation for plane element", Res. Civ. Env. Eng., 1, pp. 124 (2013). 17. Rebiai, C. and Belounar, L. A new strain based rectangular _nite element with drilling rotation for linear and nonlinear analysis", Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng., 13(1), pp. 7281 (2013). 18. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. A robust triangular membrane element", Lat. Amer. J. Sol. Struc., 11(14), pp. 26482671 (2014). 2274 M. RezaieePajand et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2258{2275 19. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi M. An e_cient formulation for linear and geometric nonlinear membrane elements", Lat. Amer. J. Sol. and Struc., 11(6), pp. 10121035 (2014). 20. Rebiai, C. and Belounar, L. An e_ective quadrilateral membrane _nite element based on the strain approach", Measurement, 50, pp. 263269 (2014). 21. Rebiai, C., Saidani, N., and Bahloul, E. A new _nite element based on the strain approach for linear and dynamic analysis", Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Tech., 11(6), pp. 639644 (2015). 22. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. Two new quadrilateral elements based on strain states", Civ. Eng. Inf. J., 48(1), pp. 133156 (2015). 23. Hamadi, D., Ayoub, A., and Maalem, T. A new strainbased _nite element for plane elasticity problems", Eng. Comp., 33(2), pp. 562579 (2016). 24. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. Geometrical nonlinear analysis by plane quadrilateral element", Sci. Ira., 25(5), pp. 24882500 (2018). 25. Rebiai, C. Finite element analysis of 2D structures by new strain based triangular element", J. Mech., 35(3) pp. 19 (2018). 26. Rezaiee Pajand, M., Gharaei Moghaddam, N., and Ramezani, M.R. Two triangular membrane elements based on strain", Int. J. Appl. Mech., 11(1), p. 1950010 (2019). 27. Belounar, L. and Guenfoud, M. A new rectangular _nite element based on the strain approach for plate bending", Thin Wall. Struct., 43(1), pp. 4763 (2005). 28. Hamadi, D., Abderrahmani, S., Maalem, T., and Temami, O. E_ciency of the strain based approach formulation for plate bending analysis", Int. J. Mech. Aero. Ind. Mechatr. Manufac. Eng., 8(8), pp. 1408 1412 (2014). 29. Abderrahmani, S., Maalem, T., and Hamadi, D. On improved thin plate bending rectangular _nite element based on the strain approach", Int. J. Eng. Res. Afr., 27, pp. 7686 (2016). 30. Abderrahmani, S., Maalem, T., Zatar, A., and Hamadi, D. A new strain based sector _nite element for plate bending problems", Int. J. Eng. Res. Afr., 31, pp. 113 (2017). 31. Belarbi, M.T. and Charif, A. Novel sector element based on strain with inplane rotations", Rev. Europ. El_em., 7(4), pp. 439458 (1998) (In French). 32. Belounar, A., Benmebarek, S., and Belounar, L. Strain based triangular _nite element for plate bending analysis", Mech. Adv. Mater. Struc., pp. 113 (2018). DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2018.1488310 33. Ashwell, D.G. and Sabir, A.B. A new cylindrical shell _nite element based on simple independent strain functions", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 14(3), pp. 171183 (1972). 34. Djoudi, M.S. and Bahai, H. Strain based _nite element for the vibration of cylindrical panels with openings", Thin wall. Struct., 42(4), pp. 575588 (1972). 35. Hamadi, D., Temami, O., Zatar, A., and Abderrahmani, S. A comparative study between displacement and strain based formulated _nite elements applied to the analysis of thin shell structures", Int. J. Civ. Env. Struc. Const. Arch. Eng., 8(8), pp. 875880 (2014). 36. Mousa, A. and Djoudi, M. New strain based triangular _nite element for the vibration of circular cylindrical shell with oblique ends", Int. J. Civ. Env. Eng., 15(5), pp. 611 (2015). 37. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. An e_cient at shell element", Meccanica, 53(45), pp. 10151035 (2018). 38. To, C.W.S. and Liu, M.L. Hybrid strain based threenode at triangular shell elements", Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 17(3), pp. 169203 (1994). 39. RezaieePajand, M. and Yaghoobi, M. A hybrid stress plane element with strain _eld", Civ. Eng. Inf. J., 50(2), pp. 255275 (2017). 40. Belounar, L. and Guerraiche, K. A new strain based brick element for plate bending", Alex. Eng. J., 53(1), pp. 95105 (2014). 41. Guerraiche, K., Belounar, L., and Bouzidi, L. A new eight nodes brick _nite element based on the strain approach", J. Solid Mech., 10(1), pp. 186199 (2018). 42. Messai, A., Belounar, L., and Merzouki, T. Static and free vibration of plates with a strain based brick element", Eur. J. Comp. Mech., pp. 121 (2018). DOI: 10.1080/17797179.2018.1560845 43. Alvin, K., Horacio, M., Haugen, B., and Felippa, C.A. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedomsI. The EFF element", Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 12(34), pp. 163187 (1992). 44. Allman, D.J. A quadrilateral _nite element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 26(3), pp. 717730 (1988). 45. Cook, R.D. A plane hybrid element with rotational DOF and adjustable sti_ness", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 24(8), pp. 14991508 (1987). 46. MacNeal, R.H. and Harder, R.L. A re_ned fournoded membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom", Comput. Struct., 28(1), pp. 7584 (1988). 47. Cook, R.D. Some options for plane triangular elements with rotational degrees of freedom", Finite Eleme. Anal. Des., 6(3), pp. 245249 (1990). 48. Cook, R.D. Modi_ed formulations for ninedof plane triangles that include vertex rotations", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 31(5), pp. 825835 (1991). 49. Felippa, C.A. A study of optimal membrane triangles with drilling freedoms", Comput. Meth. Appl. M., 192(1618), pp. 21252168 (2003). 50. Timoshenko, S.P. and Goodier, J.N., Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edn., McGrawHill: New York, U.S. (1934).##]
1

Endurance Time Analysis of skewed slabongirder bridges: The significance of the excitation angle
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21371.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21371
1
In this paper the influence of excitation angle on the Endurance Time (ET) analysis of skewed slabongirder bridges is studied. The excitation of the structure due to critical angle leads to the maximum seismic responses that are sometimes significantly higher than the average. The modeled bridges are slabongirder type which are typically used as highway bridges. The bridge models have skew angles of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The ET excitations exerted on the structures cover a broad range of hazard levels. The results provide some insight for choosing multiple excitation angles in such a way that balances computational costs and retains acceptable accuracy for practical design purposes. Sensitivity of life cycle cost (LCC) to skewness is also studied.
0

2276
2285


H.E.
Estekanchi
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran


E.
Ghaffari
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ghaffari@alum.sharif.edu


A.
HaghaniBaei
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
ali.haghani93@student.sharif.edu
Slabongirder bridge
Seismic analysis
Endurance Time method
Skewed bridge
Critical excitation angle
Life Cycle Cost analysis
[1. Buckle, I.G., The Northridge, California Earthquake of January 17, 1994: Performance of Highway Bridges, NCEER940008, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Bu_alo (NY) (1994). 2. Jennings, P.C., Engineering Features of the San Fernando Earthquake of February 9, 1971, Report no. EERL7102, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (1971). 3. Ghobarah, A. and Tso, W. Seismic analysis of skewed highway bridges with intermediate supports", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2(3), pp. 235248 (1973). 4. Maragakis, E.A. and Jennings, P.C. Analytical models for the rigid body motions of skew bridges", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 15(8), pp. 923944 (1987). 5. AbdelMohti, A. and Pekcan, G. Seismic response of skewed RC boxgirder bridges", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 7(4), pp. 415426 (2008). 6. Kaviani, P., Zareian, F., and Taciroglu, E. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete bridges with skewangled seattype abutments", Engineering Structures, 45, pp. 137150 (2012). 7. AASHTO, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Speci_cations, American Association of State Highway and Transportation O_cials (2014). 8. Maleki, S. and Bisadi, V. Orthogonal e_ects in seismic analysis of skewed bridges", Journal of Bridge Engineering, 11(1), pp. 122130 (2006). 9. Vamvatsikos, D. and Cornell, C.A. Incremental dynamic analysis", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 31(3), pp. 491514 (2002). 10. Estekanchi, H.E. and Vafai, H., Seismic Analysis and Design Using the Endurance Time Method, Volume I: Concepts and Development, Momentum Press (2018). 11. Bazmooneh, A. and Estekanchi, H.E. Determination of target time for endurance time method at di_erent seismic hazard levels", Scientia Iranica. Transactions A, Civil Engineering, 25(1), pp. 3349 (2018). 12. FEMA, 440, Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures, Federal Emergency Management Agency: Washington, D.C. (2005). 13. Estekanchi, H.E. Endurance Time method website", https://sites.google.com/site/etmethod/ (2018). 14. Mirzaee, A., Estekanchi, H.E., and Vafai, A. Improved methodology for endurance time analysis: From time to seismic hazard return period", Scientia Iranica, 19(5), pp. 11801187 (2012). 15. USGS United states geological survey hazard maps", https://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/hazmaps (2017). 16. Maleki, S. E_ect of deck and support sti_ness on seismic response of slabgirder bridges", Engineering Structures, 24(2), pp. 219226 (2002). 17. AASHTO, AASHTO Guide Speci_cations for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, American Association of State Highway and Transportation O_cials (2011). 18. Mirzaee, A. Application of endurance time method in performancebased design", PhD Dissertation, Sharif University of Technology (2013). 19. Solberg, K., Mander, J., and Dhakal, R. A rapid _nancial seismic risk assessment methodology with application to bridge piers", In 19th Biennial Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Christchurch, New Zealand (2006). 20. Padgett, J.E., Dennemann, K., and Ghosh, J. Riskbased seismic lifecycle costbene_t (LCCB) analysis for bridge retro_t assessment", Structural Safety, 32(3), pp. 165173 (2010). 21. Basim, M.C., Estekanchi, H., and Vafai, A. A methodology for value based seismic design of structures by the endurance time method", Scientia Iranica, Transactions A, Civil Engineering, 23(6), p. 2514 (2016). 22. Gha_ari, E., Estekanchi, H.E., and Vafai, A. Application of Endurance Time method in seismic analysis of bridges", Scientia Iranica, (2018) (In Press). DOI:10.24200/sci.2018.5041.1382##]
1

A novel damage detection method based on flexibility identification theory and data fusion technique
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21419.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21419
1
An improved flexibilitybased method hasbeen proposed in this studyfor damage detection, in which multiscale convolution is utilized to decrease the interference of the measurementnoise and theDempsterShafer evidence theory has been adopted to combine all scale information together to amplifythe damage characteristics. Threemain features make theproposed method distinguish with previous study:1)The proposed method is a kind of nobaseline flexibilitybased method. Namely, this method can locate the damage with the absence of intact structural flexibility serving as baseline; 2) The flexibilityis estimated without requiring known the structural mass, which is a necessary in traditional method for flexibility estimation; 3) By utilizing multiscale space theory and data fusion approach, the proposed methodhas a superior noise tolerant ability. Both numerical and experimental examples have been studied to reveal the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methodindifferent noise level. The comparison between traditionalmethod and proposed method demonstrates that the latteris well suited to detect damage in beams structure in a noisy environment.
0

2286
2298


Y.Y.
Cheng
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
China


C.Y.
Zhao
School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
China


J.
Zhang
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.
China
Damage detection
Flexibility
DempsterShafer evidence theory
Noisy environment
Curvature
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Structural damage detection using sparse sensors installation by optimization procedure based on the modal exibility matrix", J Sound Vib, 381, pp. 6582 (2016). 18. Cheng, Y.Y., Zhao, C.Y., and Zhang, J. Application of a novel longgauge _ber bragg grating sensor for corrosion detection via a twolevel strategy", Sensors, 19(4), 954, pp. 118 (2019). DOI: 10.3390/s19040954 19. Sazonov, E. and Klinkhachorn, P. Optimal spatial sampling interval for damage detection by curvature or strain energy mode shapes", J. Sound Vib, 285, pp. 783801 (2005). 20. Cao, M.S. and Qiao, P.Z. Novel Laplacian scheme and multiresolution modal curvatures for structural damage identi_cation", Mech. Syst. Signal Process, 23, pp. 12231242 (2009). 21. Chandrashekhar, M. and Ganguli, R. Damage assessment of structures with uncertainty by using mode shape curvatures and fuzzy logic", J Sound Vib., 326, pp. 939957 (2009). 22. Cao, M.S., Radzienski, M., and Xu, W., et al. 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1

Effect of utilizing glass fiberreinforced polymer on flexural strengthening of RC arches
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21512.html
10.24200/sci.2019.21512
1
An experimental study on the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) arches strengthened with glass fiberreinforced polymer (GFRP) layers is performed. Totally, 36 specimens including 3 unstrengthened (control) and 33 strengthened RC arches were tested under centrally concentrated point load. The variables of this study were the steel reinforcement ratios, number of GFRP layers, and location and arrangement of GFRP layers. The failure mode, loaddisplacement response of specimens, crack propagation patterns, and GFRP debonding were examined. The extrados strengthening method was more effective than intrados strengthening approach in improving the failure load and rigidity of the arches. However, applying excessive GFRP layers at extrados can change the failure mode of arches from flexural to shear failure. The dominant failure mode of specimens was flexural and ductile failure due to the formation of fivehinge mechanism. Generally, GFRP strengthening could augment the ultimate load carrying capacity, secant stiffness, and energy absorption capacity of arch specimens by up to about 154, 300, and 93 percent, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the level of influence of each considered parameters on the behavior of RC arches. Finally, Analytical approach predicts the experimental data on arches with fivehinge failure mechanism satisfactorily.
0

2299
2309


H.
Moradi
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, International Campus, Kish Island, Iran
Iran
moradi121350@gmail.com


A.R.
Khaloo
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
khaloo@sharif.edu


M.
Shekarchi
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
m.shekarchi1992@gmail.com


A.
Kazemian
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
alirezak.1991@gmail.com
Reinforced concrete arch
glass fiberreinforced polymer
Flexural strengthening
fivehinge mechanism
statistical analysis
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Prediction of failure load of R/C beams strengthened with FRP plate due to stress concentration at the plate end", ACI Structural Journal, 95, pp. 142152 (1998). H. Moradi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 26 (2019) 2299{2309 2309 26. Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C., Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 7th Edn., John Wiley & Sons (2018).##]