2018
25
4
4
173
1

Evaluation of effective parameters on lateral buckling of subsea pipelines on a rigid seabed
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4610.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4610
1
In this study, the lateral buckling of pipelines on a rigid seabed under temperature and internal pressure is discussed regardless of the effects of waves and currents. The analytical results in some cases are compared with the numerical results obtained from ABAQUS software. Then the influence of effective parameters (such as: internal pressure, friction, initial imperfection, diameter and thickness of the pipe and the pipe material) on the lateral buckling of pipelines on a rigid seabed is evaluated in order to determine the level of importance. The most important results indicate a reduced possibility of lateral buckling with an increased coefficient of friction between the pipe and seabed, reduction of the internal pressure, and reduction of the amplitude of the initial imperfection in the pipeline. For example, compared to the models with coefficients of friction equal to 0.5 and 0.3, the safety temperature in the model with a coefficient of friction equal to 0.7 has increased 13.6% and 50% respectively. Compared to the models with initial imperfections equal to 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 m, the safety temperature in the model with an initial imperfection of 0.1 m has increased 4.49%, 15.32%, and 40.65% respectively.
0

1891
1906


Mohammad
Vaghefi
Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 7516913817, Bushehr, Iran.
Iran
vaghefi@pgu.ac.ir


Marjan
Keshavarzi
Vocational Department, Alzahra University, Qods Square, P.O. Box: 751351673, Bushehr, Iran
Iran


Maryam
Akbari
Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box: 7516913817, Bushehr, Iran.
Iran
m.akbari@pgu.ac.ir
Subsea pipeline
Lateral buckling
Initial imperfection
Internal pressure
Temperature
[References##1. CCORE. Design options for oshore pipelines in the##US Beaufort and Chukchi Seas", CCORE Report R##07078519 v2, Ottawa, Canada, prepared for: US Department##of the Interior Minerals Management Service##2. Liu, R. and Yan, S.H. A brief history of upheaval##buckling studies for subsea buried pipeline", Journal of##Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, 4(3), pp.##19491204 (2012).##3. Kerr, A.D. Analysis of thermal track buckling in the##lateral plane", Acta Mechanica, 30(12), pp. 1750##4. Hobbs, R.E. Pipeline buckling caused by axial loads",##Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 1(2), pp. 2##10 (1981).##5. Hobbs, R.E. Inservice buckling of heated pipelines",##Journal of Transportation Engineering, 110(2), pp.##175189 (1984).##6. Taylor, N. and Gan, A.B. Submarine pipeline##bucklingimperfection study", ThinWalled Structures,##4(4), pp. 295323 (1986).##7. Palmer, A.C., Elliance, C.P., Richards, D.M., and##Guijt, J. Design of submarine pipelines against upheaval##buckling", Proceeding of 22nd Oshore Technology##Conference, 1, Houston, USA, pp. 551560 (1990).##8. Peek, R. and Yun, H. Flotation to trigger lateral##buckles in pipelines on a##at seabed", Journal of##Engineering Mechanics, 133(4), pp. 442451 (2007).##9. Wang, L., Ruowei, S.H., Feng, Y., Zhen, G., and##Luqing, Y. Global buckling of pipelines in the vertical##plane with a soft seabed", Applied Ocean Research,##33(2), pp. 130136 (2011).##10. Karampour, H., Albermani, F., and Gross, J. On##lateral and upheaval buckling of subsea pipelines",##Engineering Structures, 52, pp. 317330 (2013).##11. Liu, R., Xiong, H., Wu, X., and Yan, S. Numerical##studies on global buckling of subsea pipelines", Ocean##Engineering, 78, pp. 6272 (2014).##12. Karampour, H. and Albermani, F. Experimental##and numerical investigations of buckle interaction in##subsea pipelines", Engineering Structures, 66, pp. 81##88 (2014).##13. Wang, L., Shi, R., Yuan, F., Guo, Z., and Yu, L.##Global buckling of pipelines in the vertical plane with##a soft seabed", Applied Ocean Research, 33(2), pp.##130136 (2011).##14. Hong, Z., Liu, R., Liu, W., and Yan, S. A lateral##global buckling failure envelope for a high temperature##and high pressure (HT/HP) submarine pipeline",##Applied Ocean Research, 51, pp. 117128 (2015).##15. Feng, X., Wu, W., Li, X., Zhang, X., and Zhou,##J. Experimental investigations on detecting lateral##buckling for subsea pipelines with distributed ber##optic sensors", Smart Structures and Systems, 15(2),##pp. 245258 (2015).##16. Li, G., Zhan, L., and Li, H. An analytical solution##to lateral buckling control of subsea pipelines by distributed##buoyancy sections", ThinWalled Structures,##107, pp. 221230 (2016).##17. Shahandeh, R. and Showkati, H. In##uence of ringsti##eners on buckling behavior of pipelines under##hydrostatic pressure", Journal of Constructional Steel##Research, 121, pp. 237252 (2016).##18. Zhang, X., Duan, M., Wang, Y., and Li, T. Parameters##study on lateral buckling of submarine PIP##pipelines", Ocean Systems Engineering, 6, pp. 99115##1906 M. Vaghe et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1891{1906##19. Reda, A.M. and Forbes, G.L. Investigation into the##dynamic eects of lateral buckling of high temperature/##high pressure oshore pipelines", Proceedings of##the Annual Conference of the Australian Acoustical##Society, 1, Fremantle, Australia, pp. 111 (2012).##20. ABAQUS 6.10. Abaqus/CAE user's manual", Dassault##Systemes Simulia, Providence, USA (2011).##21. Veritas, D.N. Global buckling of submarine pipelinesstructural##design due to high temperature/high pressure",##Recommended Practice, DNV RPF110, Veritasveien,##Norway (2007).##22. Suzuki, N., Igi, S., and Masamura, K. Seismic##integrity of highstrength pipelines", JFE Technical##Report, 17, pp. 1419 (2008).##]
1

A numerical investigation of the effect of the temperature on the seepage calculation
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_20421.html
10.24200/sci.2018.20421
1
Temperature difference in the soil and its environments is a common phenomenon. The permeability of the soil changes with the temperature mostly because of the variation of the viscosity of water in different temperatures. More realistic estimation of the seepage value through and beneath hydraulic structures leads to more efficient design of them. In this paper, the heat conduction equation is solved by a least squares based meshfree method to calculate the distribution of the temperature in a soil. The distribution of the permeability coefficients can be varied irregularly that may make some difficulties in the meshbased methods. In these methods the permeability changes in each mesh and finer mesh or some kinds of interpolation are required in the solution procedure. Since there is no need to form elements or grids in a meshfree method, it can handle this irregular variation simply. Here, the seepage equation is solved by the same least squares based meshfree method. The method is integral free, simple and efficient in calculation thanks to its sparse and positive definite matrices. The scheme is validated by solving a simplified version of the governing equations. More complicated problems are dealt with to investigate the phenomenon numerically.
0

1907
1915


Alireza
Tabarsa
Golestan University, Faculty of Engineering, Gorgan, Iran
Iran
a.tabarsa@gu.ac.ir


Mohsen
Lashkarbolok
Golestan University, Faculty of Engineering, Gorgan, Iran
Iran
m.lbolok@gu.ac.ir
temperature distribution
meshfree method
seepage
Permeability
least squares
[References##1. Farouki, T.O., Thermal Properties of Soils, United##States Army Corps of Engineers (1981).##2. Putkonen, J. Soil thermal properties and heat transfer##processes near NyAlesund, northwestern Spitsbergen,##Svalbard", Polar Research, 17(20), pp. 165179 (1998).##3. Nicholson, P.G., Soil Improvement and Ground Modi##cation Methods, Butterworth Heinemann, Elsevier##Inc., USA (2015).##4. Zihms, S.G., Switzer, C., Karstunen, M., and##Tarantino, A. Understanding the eects of high temperature##processes on the engineering properties of##soils", Proceedings of the 18th International Conference##on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,##Paris, France, pp. 34273430 (2013).##5. Cho, W.J., Lee, J.O., and Chun, K.S. The temperature##eects on hydraulic conductivity of compacted##bentonite", Applied Clay Science, 14, pp. 4758 (1999).##6. Towhata, I., Kuntiwattanakul, P., Seko, I., and Ohishi,##K. Volume change of clays induced by heating as observed##in consolidation tests", Soils and Foundations,##33(4), pp. 170183 (1993).##7. Villar, M.V. and Lioret, A. In##uence of temperature##on the hydromechanical behaviour of a compacted##bentonite", Applied Clay Science, 26(1/4), pp. 337350##8. Romero, E., Gens, A., and Lioret, A. Temperature##eects on the hydraulic behaviour of an unsaturated##clay", Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 19,##pp. 311332 (2001).##A. Tabarsa and M. Lashkarbolok/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1907{1915 1915##9. Ye, W.M., Wan, M., Chen, B., Chen, Y.G., Cui,##Y.J., and Wanf, J. Temperature eects on the##unsaturated permeability of the densely compacted##GMZ01 bentonite under conned conditions", Journal##of Engineering Geology, 126, pp. 17 (2012).##10. Stetyukha, V.A. Numerical simulation of changes##in the thermal condition of soils under the eect of##channel change of a river bed", Power Technology and##Engineering, 38(1), pp. 2729 (2004).##11. Yu, W.B., Liu, W.B., Lai, Y.M., Chen, L., and Yi,##X. Nonlinear analysis of coupled temperature seepage##problem of warm oil pipe in permafrost regions of##Northeast China", Applied Thermal Engineering, 70,##pp. 988995 (2014).##12. Youse, S., Noorzad, A., Ghaemian, M., and##Kharaghani, S. Seepage investigation of embankment##dams using numerical modelling of temperature eld",##Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 6(8), pp.##50785082 (2013).##13. Cui, W., Gawecka, K.A., Potts, D.M., Taborda,##D.M.G., and Zdravkovic, L. Numerical analysis of##coupled thermo hydraulic problems in geotechnical##engineering", Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment,##6, pp. 2234 (2016).##14. Fukuchi, T. Numerical analyses of steadystate seepage##problems using the interpolation nite dierence##method", Soils and Foundations, 56(4), pp. 608626##15. Belytschko, T. Meshless methods: an overview and##recent developments", Computer Methods in Applied##Mechanics and Engineering, 139(14), pp. 347 (1996).##16. Liu, G.R., Mesh Free Methods: Moving Beyond the##Finite Element Method, 1st, Ed. CRC Press, Boca##Raton, USA (2002).##17. Liu, G.R. and Gu, Y.T., An Introduction to Meshless##Methods and Their Programming, 1st, Ed. Springer##Press, Berlin, Germany (2005).##18. Ding, H., Shu, C., Yeo, K.S., and Xu, D. Development##of leastsquarebased twodimensional nitedierence##schemes and their application to simulate natural##convection in a cavity", Computer and Fluids, 33, pp.##137157 (2004).##19. Afshar, M.H. and Lashckarbolok, M. Collocated discrete##leastsquares (CDLS) meshless method: Error##estimate and adaptive renement", International Journal##for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 56(10), pp. 1909##1928 (2008).##20. Afshar, M.H. and Shobeyri, G. Ecient simulation of##free surface##ows with discrete leastsquares meshless##method using a priori error estimator", International##Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, 24(9), pp.##349367 (2010).##21. Firoozjaee, A.R. and Afshar, M.H. Steadystate solution##of incompressible NavierStokes equations using##discrete leastsquares meshless method", International##Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 67(3), pp.##369382 (2010).##22. Lashkarbolok, M., Jabbari, E., and Westerweel, J.##A least squares based meshfree technique for the##numerical solution of the##ow of viscoelastic##node enrichment strategy", Engineering Analysis with##Boundary Elements, 50, pp. 5968 (2015).##23. Lashckarbolok, M. and Jabbari, E. Collocated discrete##least squares (CDLS) meshless method for the##simulation of powerlaw##ows", Scientia Iranica,##20(2), pp. 322328 (2013).##24. Lashckarbolok, M., Jabbari, E., and Vuik, K. A##node enrichment strategy in collocated discrete least##squares meshless method for the solution of generalized##ow", Scientia Iranica (A), 21(1), pp.##110 (2014).##25. Butcher, J.C., Numerical Methods for Ordinary Dierential##Equations, John Wiley, 2nd Edition (2008).##]
1

Robust model and solution algorithm for the railroad blocking problem under uncertainty
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4199.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4199
1
The railroad blocking problem emerges as an important issue at the tactical level of planning in freight rail transportation. This problem consists of determining the optimal paths for freight cars in a rail network. Often, demand and supply resource indicators are assumed to be certain, so the solution obtained from a certain model might not be optimal or even feasible in practice because of the stochastic nature of these parameters. To address this issue, this paper develops a robust model for this problem with uncertain demand and uncertain travel time as supply resource indicators. Since the model combines integer variables and nonlinear functions, a branchandcut algorithm is used to solve the linearized version of the robust model. The performance of the proposed algorithm in several instances is discussed. A comparison with a wellknown solver shows the high efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Finally, this algorithm is applied to a blocking problem of the railways of Iran. The results show that, by ignoring approximately 10% of the optimal value of the deterministic model, we have an optimal solution that remains unchanged with a probability of more than 0.98.
0

1916
1930


Reza
Mohammad Hasany
Department of
Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11155

8639, Tehran, Iran
Iran
rmhasany@gmail.com


Yousef
Shafahi
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O.Box: 111559313, Tehran, Iran
Iran
shafahi@sharif.edu
Railroad blocking problem
robust optimization
branchandcut algorithm
uncertainty
railway planning
[References##1. Crainic, T.G. and Laporte, G. Planning models for freight transportation", Eur. J. Oper. Res., 97, pp.##409438 (1997).##2. Crainic, T.G. Service network design in freight transportation",##Eur. J. Oper. Res., 122, pp. 272288##3. Assad, A.A. Modelling of rail networks: Toward a##routing/makeup model", Transport Res. BMeth, 14,##pp. 101114 (1980).##4. Fugenschuh, A., Homfeld, H., and Schulldorf, H.##Singlecar routing in rail freight transport", Transport##Sci., 49, pp. 130148 (2013).##5. Barnhart, C., Jin, H., and Vance, P.H. RailRoad##blocking: A network design application", Oper. Res.,##48, pp. 603614 (2000).##6. Bontekoning, Y. and Priemus, H. Breakthrough innovations##in intermodal freight transport", Transport##Plan Techn., 27, pp. 335345 (2004).##7. Bodin, L.D., Golden, B.L., Schuster, A.D., and##William, R. A model for the blocking of trains",##Transport Res BMeth, 14, pp. 115150 (1980).##8. Marn, A. and Salmeron, J. Tactical design of rail##freight networks. Part I:Exact and heuristic methods",##Eur. J. Oper. Res., pp. 2644 (1996).##9. Lin, B.L., Wang, Z.M., Ji, L.J., Tian, Y.M., and##Zhou, G.Q. Optimizing the freight train connection##service network of a largescale rail system", Transportation##Research Part B: Methodological, 46, pp.##649667 (2012).##10. Newton, H.N., Barnhart, C., and Vance, P.H. Constructing##railroad blocking plans to minimize handling##costs", Transport Sci., 32, pp. 330345 (1998).##11. Keaton, M.H. Designing optimal railroad operating##plans: Lagrangian relaxation and heuristic approaches",##Transportation Research: Part B, 23, pp.##415431 (1989).##12. Hasany, R.M., Shafahi, Y., and Kazemi, S.F. A comprehensive##formulation for railroad blocking problem",##ECMS, pp. 758763 (2013).##13. Ahuja, R.K., Jha, K.C., and Liu, J. Solving reallife##railroad blocking problems", Interfaces, 37, pp. 404##419 (2007).##14. Martinelli, D.R. and Teng, H. Optimization of railway##operations using neural networks", Transport Res CEmer,##4, pp. 3349 (1996).##15. Yaghini, M., Momeni, M., Sarmadi, M., Seyedabadi,##M., and Khoshraftar, M.M. A fuzzy railroad blocking##model with genetic algorithm solution approach for##Iranian railways", Appl. Math. Model, 20, pp. (2015).##16. Yue, Y., Zhou, L., Yue, Q., and Fan, Z. Multiroute##railroad blocking problem by improved model and ant##colony algorithm in real world", Comput. Ind. Eng.,##60, pp. 3442 (2011).##1928 R. M. Hasany and Y. Shafahi/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1916{1930##17. Yaghini, M., Ahadi, H.R., Barati, E., and Saghian,##Z. Tabu search algorithm for the railroad blocking##problem", J. Transp. Eng.ASCE, 139, pp. 216222##18. Ahuja, R.K., Cunha, C.B., and Sahin, G. Network##models in railroad planning and scheduling", Tut.##Oper. Res., 1, pp. 54101 (2005).##19. Voll, R. and Clausen, U. Branchandprice for a##European variant of the railroad blocking problem",##Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, 41, pp. 45##52 (2013).##20. Yaghini, M., Rahbar, M., Karimi, M., and##Khoshkroudian, M. A branchandprice algorithm for##solving the railroad blocking problem", International##Journal of Engineering Science (20084870), 25, pp.##99108 (2014).##21. Yang, L., Gao, Z., and Li, K. Railway freight##transportation planning with mixed uncertainty of##randomness and fuzziness", Appl. Soft Comp., 11, pp.##778792 (2011).##22. Gao, Y., Yang, L., and Li, S. Uncertain models##on railway transportation planning problem", Appl.##Math. Model, 40, pp. 49214934 (2016).##23. Meng, Q., Hei, X., Wang, S., and Mao, H. Carrying##capacity procurement of rail and shipping services for##automobile delivery with uncertain demand", Transport##Res. ELog, 82, pp. 3854 (2015).##24. Milenkovic, M.S., Bojovic, N.J., Svadlenka, L., and##Melichar, V. A stochastic model predictive control##to heterogeneous rail freight car##eet sizing problem",##Transport Res. ELog, 82, pp. 162198 (2015).##25. Jin, H., Designing Robust Railraod Blocking Plans,##Massachusetts Institute od Technology (1998).##26. BenTal, A. and Nemirovski, A. Robust solutions##of Linear Programming problems contaminated with##uncertain data", Math. Prog., 88, pp. 411424 (2000).##27. Prekopa, A., Stochastic Programming, Springer Science##& Business Media (2013).##28. Wong, W.G., Niu, H., and Ferreira, L. A fuzzy##method for predicting the demand for rail freight##transportation", J. Adv. Transport, 37, pp. 159171##29. Carvalho, G., Methodology for Railway Demand Forecasting##Using Data Mining, SAS Global Forum (2007).##30. Gorman, M.F. Statistical estimation of railroad congestion##delay", Transport Res. ELog, 45, pp. 446456##31. Matas, A., Raymond, J.L., GonzalezSavignat, M.,##and Ruiz, A. Predicting the demand: Uncertainty##analysis and prediction models in Spain", Working##Paper in Economic Evaluation of Transportation##Projects, pp. 131 (2009).##32. Dong, Y. Modeling rail freight operations under##dierent operating strategies", PhD Thesis, MIT,##Cambridge, MA (1997).##33. Birge, J.R. and Louveaux, F., Introduction to Stochastic##Programming, Springer (2011).##34. Soyster, A.L. Convex programming with setinclusive##constraints and applications to inexact linear programming",##Oper. Res., 21, pp. 11541157 (1973).##35. BenTal, A. and Nemirovski, A. Robust convex optimization",##Mathematics of Operations Research, 23,##pp. 769805 (1998).##36. Seref, O., Ahuja, R.K., and Orlin, J.B. Incremental##network optimization: Theory and algorithms", Oper.##Res., 57, pp. 586594 (2009).##37. Han, J., Lee, C., and Park, S. A robust scenario approach##for the vehicle routing problem with uncertain##travel times", Transport Sci., 48, pp. 373390 (2013).##38. Smith, J.C., Ahmed, S., Cochran, J.J., Cox, L.A., Keskinocak,##P., Kharoufeh, J.P., and Smith, J.C. Introduction##to robust optimization", Wiley Encyclopedia of##Operations Research and Management Science, John##Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).##39. Nemhauser, G.L. and Wolsey, L.A. Integer programming##and combinatorial optimization", W., Chichester,##G.L. Nemhauser, M.W.P. Savelsbergh, and G.S.##Sigismondi, Constraint Classication for Mixed Integer##Programming Formulations, COAL Bulletin, 20, pp.##812 (1988).##40. Lee, J. and Leyer, S., Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming,##Springer Science & Business Media (2011).##41. ILOG, CPLEX OPTIMIZATION, INC. 2009. Using##the CPLEX Linear Optimizer.##42. Van Essen, H., Boon, B., den Boer, L., Faber, J.,##van den Bossche, M., Vervoort, K., and Rochez, C.,##Marginal Costs of Infrastructure Use  Towards a##Simplied Approach, Delft (2003).##43. Bertsimas, D. and Sim, M. Robust discrete optimization##and network##ows", Math. Prog., 98, pp. 4971##44. BenTal, A., El Ghaoui, L., and Nemirovski, A., Robust##Optimization, Princeton University Press, New Jersey##]
1

Reservoir's geometry impact of three dimensions on peak discharge of damfailure flash flood
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4467.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4467
1
Once a dam fails, large amount of water at rest in the reservoir releases to downstream river and can cause extensive inundation areas, damage to properties, and loss of lives. The outflow hydrograph influences from variety of factors; e.g. dam’s properties, failure mode, and reservoir specification. This paper aims to analyze the effect of two latter factors on the peak outflow discharge focusing on the relative size of the failed part employing failure ratio (a/A0) and shape of the reservoir employing shape factor (Sf) and cross section index (λ). Doing so, instantaneous experimental dam break and historical gradual failure were considered and separate analyses were carried out. Results showed that a higher peakdischarge is expected when Sf decreases or a/A0 and λ increase. Based on the experimental and historical dam failure data two distinct regression equations were developed and verified for peakdischarge estimation. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that peakdischarge is highly sensitive to changes of the failure ratio and shape factor and it to some extend affects from cross section index.
0

1931
1942


Ahmad
Tahershamsi
Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Iran


Farhad
Hooshyaripor
Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran


Sahand
Razi
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran. Iran
Iran
Dam failure
Failure ratio
Peakdischarge
Reservoir shape
cross section index
[References##1. Singh, V., Dam Breach Modelling Technology, Kluwer##Academic Publishers (1996).##2. Pilotti, M., Tomirotti, M., Valerio, G., and Bacchi,##B. Simplied method for the characterization of the##hydrograph following a sudden partial dam break",##1942 A. Tahershamsi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1931{1942##Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 136(10), pp. 693##704 (2010).##3. Feizi Khankandi, A., Tahershamsi, A., and Soares##Fraz~ao, S. Experimental investigation of reservoir geometry##eect on dambreak##ow", Journal of Hydraulic##Research, 50(4), pp. 376387 (2012).##4. Aliparast, M. Twodimensional nite volume method##for dambreak##ow simulation", International Journal##of Sediment Research, 24, pp. 99107 (2009).##5. Lohrasbi, A. and Pirooz, M.D. Dam break model with##Eulerian equations using mapping technique", Scientia##Iranica, 23(3), pp. 876881 (2016).##6. Wang, B., Zhang, T., Zhou, Q., Wu, C., Chen, Y., and##Wu, P.A. Case study of the Tangjiashan landslide##dambreak", Journal of Hydrodynamics, 27(2), pp.##223233 (2015).##7. Froehlich, D.C. Peak out##ow from breached embankment##dam", Journal of Water Resources and Planning##Management, 121(1), pp. 9097 (1995).##8. USBR, Guidelines for Dening Inundated Areas Downstream##from Bureau of Reclamation Dam, Reclamation##Planning Instruction No 8211, US Department of the##Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, 25 (1982).##9. Evans, S.G. The maximum discharge of outburst##oods caused by the breaching of manmade and##natural dams", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 23(4),##pp. 385387 (1986).##10. Macdonald, T.C. and LangridgeMonopolis, J.##Breaching characteristics of dam failures", Journal##of Hydraulic Engineering, 110(5), pp. 567586 (1984).##11. TaherShamsi, A., Shetty, A.V., and Ponce, V.M.##Embankment dam breaching: Geometry and peak##ow characteristics", Dam Engineering, 14(2), pp.##7387 (2003).##12. Hooshyaripor, F., Tahershamsi, A., and Golian, S.##Application of copula method and neural networks for##predicting peak out##ow from breached embankments",##Journal of Hydroenvironment Research, 8(3), pp. 292##303 (2014).##13. Ponce, V.M., Documented Cases of Earth Dam##Breaches, San Diego State University, SDSU Civil##Engineering Series, No 89149 (1982).##14. Froehlich, D.C. Predicting peak discharge from##gradually breached embankment dam", Journal##of Hydrologic Engineering (In Press). DOI:##10.1061/(ASCE)HE.19435584.0001424##15. Wahl, T.L., Prediction of Embankment Dam Breach##Parameters, a Literature Review and Needs Assessment,##Rep No DSO98004, Bureau of Reclamation,##United States Department of the Interior, Denver, 60##p. (1998).##16. Buckingham, E. Model experiments and the forms of##empirical equations", Trans. A.S.M.E, 37, pp. 263296##17. Lauber, G. and Hager, W.H. Experiments to dambreak##wave: Horizontal channel", Journal of Hydraulic##Research, 36(3), pp. 291307 (1998).##18. Vischer, D.L. and Hager, W.H., Dam Hydraulics,##Wiley, Chichester, UK (1998).##19. SoaresFraz~ao, S. and Zech, Y. Experimental study of##ow against an isolated obstacle", Journal##of Hydraulic Research, 45(S1), pp. 2736 (2007).##20. Hooshyaripor, F. and Tahershamsi, A. Eect of reservoir##side slope on dambreak##ood wave", Engineering##Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 9(1),##pp. 458468 (2015).##21. Yochum, S.E., Goertz, L.A., and Jones, P.H. Case##study of the big bay dam failure: Accuracy and comparison##of breach predictions", Journal of Hydraulic##Engineering, 134(9), pp. 12851293 (2008).##22. Xu, Y. and Zhang, L.M. Breaching parameters for##earth and rockll dams", Journal of Geotechnical and##Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(12), pp. 1957##1970 (2009).##23. Launder, B.E. and Spalding, D.B. The numerical##computation of turbulent##ows", Computer Methods##in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3(2), pp. 269##289 (1974).##24. Mirhoseini, T.S. Experimental study of the eect of##shape factor on dam break out##ow hydrograph", MSc##Dissertation, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran##]
1

Predicting shear wave velocity of soil using multiple linear regression analysis and artificial neural networks
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4263.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4263
1
In this paper, the correlation between shear wave velocity and some of the index parameters of soils including standard penetration test blow counts (SPT), finecontent (FC), soil moisture (W), liquid limit (LL) and depth (D) is investigated. The study attempts to show the application of artificial neural networks and multiple regression analysis in the prediction of the shear wave velocity (VS) value of soils. New predicting equations are suggested to correlate VS and mentioned parameters based on a dataset collected from Mashhad city in the north east of Iran. The results suggest that better and more exact correlations in the estimation of VS are acquired when ANN method is used. The predicted values using ANN method are checked against the real values of VS to evaluate the performance of this method. The minimum correlation coefficient obtained in ANN method is higher than the maximum correlation coefficient obtained from the MLR. In addition, the value of estimation error in the ANN method is much less than the MLR method indicating the higher confidence coefficient of the ANN in estimating the VS of soil.
0

1943
1955


OMOLBANIN
ATAEE
Dept. of geology, Ferdowsi University of
Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran


NASER
HAFEZI MOGHADDAS
Dept. of geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran


GHOLAM REZA
LASHKARI POUR
Dept. of geology,
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran


MEHDI J
ABBARI NOOGHABI
Dept. of Statistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
Shear wave velocity
SPT
depth
Finecontent
artificial neural network
Multiple Linear Regression
and Mashhad
[References##1. Akin, M.K., Kramer, S.L., and Topal, T. Empirical##correlations of shear wave velocity (VS) and##penetration resistance (SPTN) for dierent soils in##an earthquakeprone area (ErbaaTurkey)", EngGeol.,##119, pp. 117 (2011).##2. Fabbrocino, S., Lanzano, G., Forte, G., Santucci de##Magistris, F., and Fabbroccini, G. SPT blow count##vs. shear wave velocity relationship in the structurally##complex formations of the Molise Region (Italy)",##Engineering Geology, 187, pp. 8497 (2015).##3. Sil, A. and Sitharam, T.G. Dynamic site characterization##and correlation of shear wave velocity with##standard penetration test 'N' values for the city of##Agartala, Tripura state, India", Pure and Applied##Geophysics, 171(8), pp. 18591876 (2014).##4. Chatterjee, K. and Choudhury, D. Variations in shear##wave velocity and soil site class in Kolkata city using##regression and sensitivity analysis", Nat. Hazards, 69,##pp. 20572082 (2013).##O. Ataee et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1943{1955 1953##5. Hasancebi, N. and Ulusay, R. Empirical correlations##between shear wave velocity and penetration resistance##for ground shaking assessments", Bulletin of Engineering##Geology and the Environment, 66, pp. 203213##6. Dikmen, U. Statistical correlations of shear wave##velocity and penetration resistance for soils", Journal##of Geophysics and Engineering, 6, pp. 6172 (2009).##7. Maheswari, R.U., Boominathan, A., and Dodagoudar,##G.R. Use of surface waves in statistical correlations##of shear wave velocity and penetration resistance of##Chennai soils", Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,##28, pp. 119137 (2010).##8. Ghazi, A., Hafezi Moghadas, N., Sadeghi, H.,##Ghafoori, M., and Lashkaripour, G.L. Empirical##relationships of shear wave velocity, SPTN value and##vertical eective stress for dierent soils in Mashhad,##Iran", Annals of Geophysics, 58(3), S0325 (2015).##9. Brandenberg, S.J., Bellana, N., and Shantz, T. Shear##wave velocity as a statistical function of standard penetration##test resistance and vertical eective stress at##Caltrans bridge sites", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake##Engineering, 30, pp. 10261035 (2010).##10. Shooshpasha, I., MolaAbasi, H., Jamalian, A., Dikmen,##U., and Salahi, M. Validation and application##of empirical shear wave velocity models based on##standard penetration test", Computational Methods in##Civil Engineering, 4(1), pp. 2541 (2013).##11. Imai, T. P and Swave velocities of the ground##in Japan", In Proceedings of the IX, International##Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,##pp. 127132 (1977).##12. Imai, T. and Yoshimura, Y. Elastic wave velocity and##soil properties in soft soil (in Japanese)", Tsuchito##Kiso., 18(1), pp. 1722 (1970).##13. Jafari, M.K., Shaee, A., and Razmkhah, A. Dynamic##properties of ne grained soils in south of Tehran", Soil##Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 4, pp. 2535##14. Kiku, H., Yoshida, N., Yasuda, S., Irisawa, T.,##Nakazawa. H., Shimizu. Y., Ansal, A., and Erkan, A.##In situ penetration tests and soil proling in Adapazari,##Turkey", In Proceedings of the ICSMGE/TC4##Satellite Conference on Lessons Learned from Recent##Strong Earthquakes, pp. 259265 (2001).##15. Lee, SHH. Regression models of shear wave velocities",##Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers,##13, pp. 519532 (1990).##16. Ohsaki, Y. and Iwasaki, R. On dynamic shear moduli##and Poisson's ratio of soil deposits", Soils and Foundations,##13(4), pp. 6173 (1973).##17. Ohta, Y. and Goto, N. Empirical shear wave velocity##equations in terms of characteristics soil indexes",##Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 6,##pp. 167187 (1978).##18. 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Comparison of articial neural networks##models with correlative works on undrained shear##strength", Eurasian Soil Science, 42(13), pp. 1487##1496, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd (2009).##23. Dehghan, S., Sattari, Gh., Chehreh chelghani, S., and##Aliabadi, M.A. Prediction of uniaxial compressive##strength and modulus of elasticity for Travertine samples##using regression and articial neural networks",##Mining Science and Technology, 20, pp. 00410046##24. Sarmadian, F. and Keshavarzi, A. Developing pedotransfer##functions for estimating some soil properties##using articial neural network and multivariate regression##approaches", International Journal of Environmental##and Earth Sciences, 1(1), pp. 3137 (2010).##25. Schaap, M.G., Leij, F.J., and Van Genuchten, M.Th.##Neural network analysis for hierarchical prediction##of soil hydraulic properties", Soil Science Society of##America Journal, 62, pp. 847855 (1998).##26. Maleki, S., Moradzadeh, A., Ghavami Riabi, R.,##Gholami, R., and Sadeghzadeh, F. Prediction of shear##wave velocity using empirical correlations and articial##intelligence methods", NRIAG Journal of Astronomy##and Geophysics, 3, pp. 7081 (2014).##27. Mohammadi, H. and Rahmannejad, R. The estimation##of rock mass deformation modulus using regression##and articial neural network analysis", Arabian##Journal for Science and Engineering, 35(1A), pp. 67##77 (2009).##28. Gunaydm, O. Estimation of soil compaction parameters##by using statistical analyses and articial neural##networks", Environ. Geol., 57, pp. 203215 (2009).##29. Sudha Rani, Ch. Articial neural networks (ANNs)##for prediction of engineering properties of soils", International##Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring##Engineering (IJITEE), 3(1), pp. 123130 (2013).##1954 O. Ataee et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1943{1955##30. Khanlari, G.R., Heidari, M., Momeni, A.A., and##Abdilor, Y. Prediction of shear strength parameters of##soils using articial neural networks and multivariate##regression methods", Engineering Geology, 131132,##pp. 1118 (2012).##31. MolaAbasi, H. and Shooshpasha, I. Prediction of##zeolitecementsand unconned compressive strength##using polynomial neural network", The European##Physical Journal Plus, 131(4), pp. 112 (2016).##32. Park, H.I. Development of neural network model to##estimate the permeability coecient of soils", Marine##Geosources and Geotechnology, 29(4), pp. 267278##33. Harini, H.N. and Naagesh, S. Predicting CBR of##ne grained soils by articial neural network and##multiple linear regression", International Journal of##Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 5(2), pp.##119126 (2014).##34. Moayed, R.Z., Kordnaeij, A., and MolaAbasi, H.##Compressibility indices of saturated clays by group##method of data handling and genetic algorithms",##Neural Computing and Applications, pp. 114 (2016).##35. MolaAbasi, H. and Shooshpasha, I. Prediction of##compression index of saturated clays (Cc) using polynomial##models", Scientia Iranica, 23(2), pp. 500507##36. Kordnaeij, A., Kalantary, F., Kordtabar, B., and##MolaAbasi, H. Prediction of recompression index##using GMDHtype neural network based on geotechnical##soil properties", Soils and Foundations, 55(6),##pp. 13351345 (2015).##37. Das, S.K. and Basudhar, P.K. Undrained lateral load##capacity of piles in clay using articial neural network",##Computers and Geotechnics, 33, pp. 454459 (2006).##38. Teh, C.I., Wong, K.S., Goh, A.T.C., and Jaritngam,##S. Prediction of pile capacity using neural networks",##J. Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 11(2), pp.##129138 (1997).##39. Sivakugan, N., Eckersley, J.D., and Li, H. Settlement##predictions using neural networks", Australian Civil##Engineering Transactions, CE40, pp. 4952 (1998).##40. MolaAbasi, H., Shooshpasha, I., and Amiri, I. Prediction##of liquefaction induced lateral displacements##using GMDH type neural networks", Global Journal##of Scientic Researches, 2(1), pp. 2126 (2014).##41. Goh, A.T.C. Probabilistic neural network for evaluating##seismic liquefaction potential", Canadian Geotechnical##Journal, 39, pp. 219232 (2002).##42. Kim, Y.S. and Kim, B.K. Use of articial neural##networks in the prediction of liquefaction resistance of##sands", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental##Engineering, 132(11), pp. 15021504 (2006).##43. Ural, D.N. and Saka, H. Liquefaction assessment##by neural networks", Electronic Journal##of Geotechnical Engineering, 3, pp. 127 (1998).##(http://www.ejge.com/ 1998/JourTOC3.htm)##44. Cho, S.E. Probabilistic stability analyses of slopes##using the ANNbased response surface", Computers##and Geotechnics, 36, pp. 787797 (2009).##45. Ferentinou, M.D. and Sakellariou, M.G. Computational##intelligence tools for the prediction of slope##performance", Computers and Geotechnics, 34(5), pp.##362384 (2007).##46. Wong, F.S. Time series forecasting using backpropagation##neural networks", Neurocomputing, 2, pp.##147259 (1991).##47. Eskandari, H., Rezaee, M.R., and Mohammadnia, M.##Application of multiple regression and articial neural##network techniques to predict shear wave velocity from##well log data for a carbonate reservoir, SouthWest##Iran", Cseg Recorder, pp. 4248 (2004).##48. Moatazedian, I., RahimpourBonab, H., Kadkhodaie##Ilkhchi, A., and Rajoli, M.R. Prediction of shear and##compressional wave velocities from petrophysical data##utilizing genetic algorithms technique: A case study in##Hendijan and Abuzar elds located in Persian Gulf",##Geopersia, 1, pp. 117 (2011).##49. Akhundi, H., Ghafoori, M., and Lashkaripour, G.R.##Prediction of shear wave velocity using articial##neural network technique, multiple regression and##petrophysical data: A case study in Asmari reservoir##(SW Iran)", Open Journal of Geology, 4, pp. 303313##50. Rezaee, M.R., Kadkhodaie Ilkhchi, A., and Barabadi,##A. Prediction of shear wave velocity from petrophysical##data utilizing intelligent systems: An example from##a sandstone reservoir of Carnarvon Basin, Australia",##Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 55, pp.##201212 (2007).##51. MolaAbasi, H., Dikmen, U., and Shooshpasha, I.##Prediction of shearwave velocity from CPT data at##Eskisehir (Turkey) using a polynomial model", Near##Surface Geophysics, 13(2), pp. 155167 (2015).##52. MolaAbasi, H., Eslami, A., and Tabatabaie Shourijeh,##P. Shear wave velocity by polynomial neural networks##and genetic algorithms based on geotechnical soil properties",##Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering,##38(4), pp. 829838 (2013).##53. Shooshpasha, I., Kordnaeij, A., Dikmen, U., MolaAbasi,##H., and Amir, I. Shear wave velocity by##support vector machine based on geotechnical soil##properties", Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences##Discussions, 2(4), pp. 24432461 (2014).##54. Berberian, M. and Ghoreshi, M., SeismicFault Hazard##and Project Engineering of Thermal Power Plant##of Nishapur, Seismotectonical Survey, Ministry of##Energy, Power Engineering Corporation (Moshanir),##Tehran (1989) (in Persian).##55. Azadi, A., JavanDoloei, G.H., Hafezi Moghadas, N.,##and HessamiAzar, K. Geological, geotechnical and##geophysical characteristics of the Toos fault located##north of Mashhad, northeastern Iran ", Journal of the##Earth and Space Physics, 35(4), pp. 1734 (2010) (in##O. Ataee et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1943{1955 1955##56. Building and Housing Research Center, Iranian Code##of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings,##Standard No. 2800, 3rd Edn., Tehran, Iran (2007).##57. James, G., Witten, D., Hastie, T., and Tibshirani, R.,##An Introduction to Statistical Learning with Applications##in R, Springer, New York, Heidelberg Dordrecht,##London (2013).##58. Haykin, S., Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation,##2nd. Ed. PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River,##New Jersey, pp. 2632 (1999).##59. Shahin, M.A., Jaksa, M.B., and Maier, H.R. Arti##cial neural network applications in geotechnical##engineering", Australian Geomechanics, 36(1), pp. 49##62 (2001).##60. Isik, F. and Ozden, G. Estimating compaction parameters##of ne and coarse grained soils by means##of articial neural networks", Environmental Earth##Sciences, 69, pp. 22872297 (2013).##61. Kisi, O. Stream##ow forecasting using dierent arti##cial neural network algorithms", Journal of Hydrologic##Engineering. ASCE, 12(5), pp. 532539 (2007).##62. Kanungo, D.P., Arora, M.K., Sarkar, S., and Gupta,##R.P. A comparative study of conventional, ANN black##box, fuzzy and combined neural and fuzzy weighting##procedures for landslide susceptibility zonation in Darjeeling##Himalayas", Engineering Geology, 85, pp. 347##366 (2006).##63. Kartam, N., Flood, I., and Garrett, J.H. Articial##neural networks for civil engineers", Fundamentals and##Applications, ASCE, New York (1997).##64. Kayadelen, C. Estimation of eective stress parameter##of unsaturated soils by using articial neural##networks", International Journal for Numerical and##Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 32(9), pp. 1087##1106 (2008).##65. Zhang, G., Patuwo, E.B., and Hu, M.Y. Forecasting##with articial neural network: The state of the art",##International Journal of Forecasting, 14, pp. 3562##66. Wang, H.B., Xu, W.Y., and Xu, R.C. Slope stability##evaluation using back propagation neural networks",##Engineering Geology, 80, pp. 302315 (2005).##67. Rivals, I. and Personnaz, L. Neuralnetwork construction##and selection in nonlinear modeling", IEEE##Transaction on Neural Networks, 14(4), pp. 804819##68. Ghiassi, M. and Nangoy, S. A dynamic articial neural##network model for forecasting nonlinear processes",##Computers & Industrial Engineering, 57(1), pp. 287##297 (2009).##]
1

Importance of bed roughness in transversal variability of the flow patterns and bed shear stress due to secondary currents
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4204.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4204
1
Laboratory experiments were carried out in order to study the influence of the bed roughness on secondary circulations and lateral flow variability in a straight open channel. Flow field and bed shear stress were measured using an acoustic doppler velocimeter and a particular type of the Preston tube, respectively. All experiments attest presence of noticeable lateral variations of the flow characteristics due to the secondary currents. The observations also reveal that the lateral variations in the experiments with larger bed roughness are more intense. This implies the formation of a more stable mechanism for the maintenance of the cellular pattern in the experiments with larger bed roughness elements. Regarding formation of the secondary currents, application of double averaging method (averaging of the time averaged turbulence parameters within a thin spatial slab parallel to the bed) is also discussed. It was found that, to properly consider the lateral variations of the flow characteristics, spatial averaging should be implemented among the measured data at different spanwise locations. As such secondary current enhancements can also affect more complex and natural flow like river flows, it can also be recommended to examine the importance of such phenomenon in those areas respecting double averaging method.
0

1956
1967


Seyed Hossein
Mohajeri
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mohajeri@srbiau.ac.ir


Akbar
Safarzadeh
Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Iran
safarzadeh@uma.ac.ir


Seyed Ali Akbar
Salehi Neyshabouri
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
salehi@modares.ac.ir
Rough bed
turbulent flow
Flow variability
Openchannel
Secondary
[References##1. Bagnold, R.A. An approach to the sediment transport##problem from general physics", Geological Survey##Professional Paper, 442I, p. 37 (1966).##2. Bennett, S.J., Bridge, J.S., and Best, J.L. Fluid and##sediment dynamics of upper stage plane beds", Journal##of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 103(C1), pp. 1239##1274 (1998).##3. Dancey, C.L., Balakrishnan, M., Diplas, P., and##Papanicolaou, A.N. The spatial inhomogeneity of##turbulence above a fully rough, packed bed in open##ow", Experiments in Fluids, 29(4), pp. 402##410 (2000).##4. Mehraein, M., Ghodsian, M., and Schleiss, A.J. Scour##formation due to simultaneous circular impinging jet##and wall jet", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 50(4),##pp. 395399 (2012).##5. Mignot, E., Hurther, D., and Barthelemy, E. On the##structure of shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy##ux across the roughness layer of a gravelbed channel##ow", Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 638, pp. 423452##6. Grant, S.B., Stewardson, M.J., and Marusic, I. Effective##diusivity and mass##ux across the sedimentwater##interface in streams", Water Resources Research,##48(5), p. W05548 (2012).##7. Dey, S. and Das, R. Gravelbed hydrodynamics:##doubleaveraging approach", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering,##138(8), pp. 707725 (2012).##8. Hassanzadeh, Y. and RanjinehKhojasteh, A. A##study of the bed roughness eects on the dam break##ood waves propagation", in 6th International Rivers##Engineering Conference, Shahid Chamran University,##Ahvaz, Iran (2004).##9. Wang, W.C. and Dawdy, D.R. Flow resistance of##gravel bed channels", International Journal of Sediment##Research, 29(1), pp. 126132 (2014).##10. Powell, D.M. Flow resistance in gravelbed rivers:##Progress in research", EarthScience Reviews, 136(0),##pp. 301338 (2014).##11. Adrian, R.J. Hairpin vortex organization in wall##turbulence)", Physics of Fluids (1994present), 19(4),##p. 041301 (2007).##12. Albayrak, I. and Lemmin, U. Secondary currents and##corresponding surface velocity patterns in a turbulent##openchannel##ow over a rough bed", Journal of##Hydraulic Engineering, 137(11), pp. 13181334 (2011).##13. Einstein, H. and Li, H. Secondary currents in##straight channels", Transaction of American Geophysical##Union, 39 pp. 10851088 (1958).##14. Nezu, I. and Nakagawa, H., Turbulence in Open##Channel Flows, Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookeld, The##Netherlands (1993).##1966 S.H. Mohajeri et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1956{1967##15. Nezu, I. Openchannel##ow turbulence and Its research##prospect in the 21st century", Journal of Hydraulic##Engineering, 131(4), pp. 229246 (2005).##16. Karcz, I. Secondary currents and the conguration##of a natural stream bed", Journal of Geophysical##Research, 71(12), pp. 31093112 (1966).##17. Nezu, I. and Rodi, W. Experimental study on secondary##currents in open channel##ow", in the 21st##IAHR Congress., Melbourne, Australia (1985).##18. Marion, A. and Zaramella, M. Eects of velocity##gradients and secondary##ow on the dispersion of##solutes in a meandering channel", Journal of Hydraulic##Engineering, 132(12), pp. 12951302 (2006).##19. Nezu, I. and Nakagawa, H. Cellular secondary currents##in straight conduit", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering,##110(2), pp. 173193 (1984).##20. Nikora, V., Goring, D., McEwan, I., and Griths,##G. Spatially averaged openchannel##ow over rough##bed", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 127(2), pp.##123133 (2001).##21. BunBelanger, T., Rice, S., Reid, I., and Lancaster,##J. Spatial heterogeneity of nearbed hydraulics above##a patch of river gravel", Water Resources Research,##42(4), p. W04413 (2006).##22. Nikora, V., Goring, D., and Biggs, B. Silverstream##ecohydraulics##ume: hydraulic design and tests", New##Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research,##32, pp. 607620 (1998).##23. Rodrguez, J.F. and Garca, M.H. Laboratory measurements##ow patterns and turbulence in##straight open channel with rough bed", Journal of##Hydraulic Research, 46(4), pp. 454465 (2008).##24. Cooper, J. and Tait, S. The spatial organisation of##timeaveraged streamwise velocity and its correlation##with the surface topography of waterworked gravel##beds", Acta Geophysica, 56(3), pp. 614641 (2008).##25. Blanckaert, K., Duarte, A., and Schleiss, A.J. In##of shallowness, bank inclination and bank roughness##on the variability of##ow patterns and boundary##shear stress due to secondary currents in straight openchannels",##Advances in Water Resources, 33(9), pp.##10621074 (2010).##26. Mohajeri, S.H., Grizzi, S, Righetti, M., Romano,##G.P., and Nikora, V. The structure of gravelbed##ow with intermediate submergence: A laboratory##study", Water Resources Research, 51(11), pp. 9232##9255 (2015).##27. Nikora, V. and Roy, A. Secondary##ows in rivers:##Theoretical framework, recent advances, and current##challenges", in Gravelbed Rivers: Processes, Tools,##Environments, Tadoussac, Quebec, Canada: John##Wiley & Sons (2012).##28. Nikuradse, J., Stromungsgesetze in Rauhen Rohren,##VDIVerlag (1933).##29. Mohajeri, H., Salehi Neyshbouri, A.A., and Safarzade,##A. A three tube pressure instrument for measuring##the local bed shear stress in smooth and rough beds",##in 2nd IAHR Europe Congress, Munich, Germany##30. Storm, P.V., Newman, B.G., Storm P.V., and Newman,##B.G. A pressure instrument to measure skin##friction in turbulent boundary layers on smooth and##nonsmooth walls", Journal of Aeronautical, pp. 2532##31. Bonakdari, H., Larrarte, F., Lassabatere, L., and Joannis,##C. Turbulent velocity prole in fullydeveloped##open channel##ows", Environmental Fluid Mechanics,##8(1), pp. 117 (2008).##32. Ikeda, S. Selfforced straight channels in sandy beds",##Journal of Hydraulic Division (ASCE), 107, pp. 389##406 (1981).##33. Ardiclioglu, M., Seckin, G., and Yurtal, R. Shear##stress distributions along the cross section in smooth##and rough open channel##ows", Kuwait Journal of##Science and Engineering, 33(1), pp. 155168 (2006).##34. Bomminayuni, S. and Stoesser, T. Turbulence statistics##in an openchannel##ow over a rough bed", Journal##of Hydraulic Engineering, 137(11), pp. 13471358##35. Belcher, B.J. and Fox, J.F. Laboratory measurements##ow patterns and turbulence in straight open##channel with rough bed", Journal of Hydraulic Research,##47(5), pp. 685688 (2009).##36. Barros, J.M. and Christensen, K.T. Observations of##turbulent secondary##ows in a roughwall boundary##layer", Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 748 (2014).##37. Nikora, V., McEwan, I., McLean, S., Coleman, S.,##Pokrajac, D., and Walters, R. Doubleaveraging concept##for roughbed openchannel and overland##Theoretical background", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering,##133(8), pp. 873883 (2007).##38. Nikora, V., McLean, S., Coleman, S., Pokrajac, D.,##McEwan, I., et al. Doubleaveraging concept for##roughbed openchannel and overland##ows: Applications",##Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133(8), pp.##884895 (2007).##39. Nikora, V. and Rowinski, P. Roughbed##geophysical, environmental, and engineering systems:##Doubleaveraging approach and its applications", Acta##Geophysica, 56(3), pp. 529533 (2008).##40. Cooper, J. and Tait, S. Spatially representative velocity##measurement over waterworked gravel beds",##Water Resources Research, 46(11), p. W11559 (2010).##]
1

Behavioral analysis of vehiclepedestrian interactions in Iran
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4201.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4201
1
Statistics upon injured and killed pedestrian accidents in recent years expresses a high vulnerability of this group of road users. By identifying influential factors on the interactions of pedestriansvehicles and representing appropriate solutions to reduce the impact of these factors, the possibility of such interactions and consequently, the relative accidents can be reduced. In present research, based on naturalistic driving studies (NDS), the driving behavior of 29 drivers of vehicles was investigated. 289 vehiclepedestrian interactions in the local urban routes of Babol City in Mazandaran, Iran at the traffic peak hours were determined. By analyzing the interactions using the DREAM method (Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method), the risk factors were identified and two causal patterns were determined for pedestrian crossings and places lacking pedestrian crossings. Drivers talking to passengers and listening to music were among the factors influencing occurrence of interactions at pedestrian crossings. Unexpected behaviors by pedestrians while crossing (such as sudden running, crossing careless of the traffic flow, and crossing without obtaining the permission from the vehicle driver) played a substantial role in occurrence of interactions in places without pedestrian crossings. Finally, some solutions were proposed for reducing the chances of occurrence of interactions.
0

1968
1976


Abbas
Sheykhfard
Civil Engineering Department of Babol Noshirvani University of Technology
Iran
a.sheykhfard@stu.nit.ac.ir


Farshidreza
Haghighi
Civil Engineering Department of Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Iran
haghighi@nit.ac.ir
Pedestrian accidents
Vehiclepedestrian interaction
Vehicle driver behavior
Pedestrian behavior
DREAM method
[References##1. WHO, Global Status Report on Road Safety: Time for##Action, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva,##Switzerland (2009).##2. OECD Sta, Road Accidents: Onsite Investigations,##Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development##(OECD), Paris (1988).##3. Larsen, L. Methods of multidisciplinary indepth##analyses of road trac accidents", Journal of Hazardous##Materials, 111(13), pp. 115122 (2004).##4. Shinar, D., Treat, J.R., and McDonald, S.T. The##validity of police reported accident data", Accident##Analysis and Prevention, 15(3), pp. 175191 (1983).##5. Dingus, T.A., Klauer, S.G., Neale, V.L., Petersen, A.,##Lee, S.E., and Sudweeks, J., The 100car naturalistic##1976 A. Sheykhfard and F. Haghighi/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1968{1976##driving study. Phase II: Results of the 100car eld##experiment, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute,##National Highway Trac Safety Admin (NHTSA), p.##422 (2006).##6. Hunter, E., Salamati, K., Elefteriadou, L., Sisiopiku,##V., Rouphail, N., Phillips, B., and Schroeder, B.##Driver yielding at unsignalized midblock crossings",##Proceedings of the 94th Transportation Research Board##Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. (2015).##7. Sucha, M. Pedestrians and drivers: their encounters##at zebra crossings", 8th International Trac Expert##Congress, 8 to 9 May, Warsaw (2014).##8. Seipone, B. and Mphele, M. Who owns the road?##Exploring driver and pedestrian behavior at zebra/##pedestrian crossings in gaborone", Botswana.##British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 1(13), pp.##20469578 (2013).##9. Langbroek, J., Ceunynck, T., Daniels, S., Svensson,##A., Laureshyn, A., Brijs, T., and Wets, G. Analyzing##interactions between pedestrians and motor vehicles##at twophase signalized intersectionsan explorative##study combining trac behavior and trac con##observations in a crossnational context", International##Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Trac##Safety(ICTCT), Proceedings (CDRom) p. 121 (2012).##10. Habibovic, A. and Davidsson, J. Requirments of a##system to reduce cartovulnerable road user crashes##in urban intersections", Accident Analysis and Prevention,##43(4), pp. 15701580 (2011).##11. Warner, H.W. and Sandin, J. The intercoder agreement##when using the driving reliability and error analysis##method in road trac accident investigations",##Accident Analysis and Prevention, 48(5), pp. 527536##12. Habibovic, A., Tivesten, E., Uchida, N., Bargman, J.,##and Ljung, M. Driver behavior in cartopedestrian##incidents: An application of the driving reliability and##error analysis method (DREAM). Accident Analysis##and Prevention, 50, pp. 554565 (2013).##13. Sandin, J. An analysis of common patterns in aggregated##causation charts from intersection crashes",##Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, pp. 624632##14. Warner, H.W., Ljung, M., Sandin, J., Johansson, E.,##and Bjorklund, G. Manual for DREAM 3.0, Driving##Reliability and Error Analysis Method", Chalmers##University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden (2008).##15. Emre, O. and Engin, E. Driver status identication##from driving behavior signals", Digital Signal Processing##For InVehicle Systems and Safety, pp. 3155##16. Wu, C. and Xiangling, Z. Pedestrian gestures increase##driver yielding at uncontrolled midblock road crossings",##Accident Analysis and Prevention, 70, pp. 235##244 (2014).##17. Lenard, J. and Hill, J. Interaction of road environment,##vehicle and human factors in the causation of##pedestrian accidents," in Proceedings of International##Conference on ESAR (Expert Symposium on Accident##Research), 34 September , Hannover, Germany,##18. Neale, V., Dingus, T., Klauer, S.H., Sudweeks, J., and##Goodman, M. An Overview of the 100Car Naturalistic##Study and Findings, Virginia Tech Transportation##Institute, National Highway Trac Safety Administration,##United States, pp. 050400 (2011).##]
1

Experimental and numerical study of a proposed momentresisting connection for precast concrete frames
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4200.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4200
1
This paper presents the test results of a proposed ductile momentresisting beamcolumn connection for precast concrete frames and a developed3D nonlinear finite element model of this connection in several different details of connection, to predict its behavior under cyclic loading, based on the loading of the ACI T1.101. In this connection, precast concrete beam and column are connected to each other by steel linkage element. This method is able to create concrete structures with higher quality through minimizing insitu concreting and maximizing the speed of construction as well as usage of ductile and exchangeable elements in sensible locations of the connection. Two types of bolted and welded connections were compared to monolithic connection in terms of stiffness, strength, energy dissipation capacity and ductility factor. All specimens satisfied all criteria of ACI T1.101.To investigate the behavior of these connections a 3D nonlinear finite element model has been simulated. Numerical results showed a good agreementwith experimental results. The initial stiffness of monolithic connectionspecimen wasgreater thanboltedconnection and welded connectionspecimens.Even though, the beam moment capacity factors for two welded and bolted samples were a little more than monolithic sample; but the ductility factors of these samples were a little less than that of monolithic sample.
0

1977
1986


Mojtaba
Fathi
Department of Civil
Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Iran
fathim@razi.ac.ir


Mahdi
Parvizi
Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Iran
parvizi.mahdi@razi.ac.ir


Javad
Karimi
Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Iran
j.karimi@razi.ac.ir


M.Hossein
Afreidoun
Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Iran
afreidoun.mohammadhoseein@razi.ac.ir
Experimental Study
Precast Concrete Frame
MomentResisting Connection
Cyclic Loading
Finite Elements Analysis
[References##1. Kataoka, M.N., Ferreira, M.A., and El Debs A.L.H.C.##Study on the behavior of beamcolumn connection in##precast concrete structure", Computers and Concrete.,##16(1), pp. 163178 (2015).##2. Guan, D., Guo, Z., Xiao, Q., and Zheng, Y. Experimental##study of a new beamtocolumn connection for##precast concrete frames under reversal cyclic loading",##Advances in Structural Engineering, 19(3), pp. 529545##3. Choi, H.K., Choi, Y.C., and Choi, C.S. Development##and testing of precast concrete beamtocolumn connections",##Engineering Structures, 56, pp. 18201835##4. Shariatmadar, H. and Zamani Beydokhti, E. An##investigation of seismic response of precast concrete##beam to column connections: Experimental study",##Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(1), pp. 4159##5. Zoubek, B., Fahjan, Y., Fischinger, M. and Isakovic,##T. Nonlinear nite element modelling of centric dowel##connections in precast buildings", Computers and##Concrete, 14(4), pp. 463477 (2014).##6. Negro, P., Bournas, D.A., and Molina, F.J. Peseudo##dynamic tests on a fullscail 3story precast concrete##building global response", Engineering Structures,##57(4), pp. 594608 (2013).##7. Bournas, D.A., Negro, P., and Molina, F.J. Peseudo##dynamic tests on a fullscail 3story precast concrete##building: Behavior of the mechanical connections and##oor diaphragms", Engineering Structures, 57(4), pp.##609627 (2013).##8. Vidjeapriya, R., Vasanthalakshmi, V., and Jaya,##K.P. Performance of exterior precast concrete beamcolumn##dowelconnections under cyclic loading", International##Journal of Civil Engineering, 12(1), pp. 8295##9. Smith, M.Z., Li, Y., and Bulleit, W.M. A method##for evaluation of longitudinal joint connections of##decked precast concrete girder bridges", Structural##Engineering and Mechanics, 40(3), pp. 297313 (2011).##10. Senel, S.M. and Kayhan, A.H. Fragility based damage##assessment in existing precast industrial buildings: A##case study for Turkey", Structural Engineering and##Mechanics, 34(1), pp. 3960 (2010).##11. Ertas, P., Ozden, S., and Ozturan, T. Ductile connections##in precast concrete moment resisting frames",##PCI., 51(3), pp. 6676 (2006).##12. Geraldine, S.C., William, C.S., and Nakaki, S.D.,##Simplied Design Procedure for Hybrid Precast Concrete##Connections, National Institute of Standard and##Technology (1996).##13. Han, L.H. and Li, W. Seismic performance of CFST##column to steel beam joints with RC slab: Analysis",##Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67, pp. 127##139 (2011).##14. Abaqus analysis user guide Concrete damage plasticity",##Section 23.6.3 (2014).##15. Pagoulatou, M., Sheehan, T., Dai, X.H., and Lam,##1986 M. Fathi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1977{1986##D. Finite element analysis on the capacity of circular##concretelled doubleskin steel tubular (CFDST) stub##columns", Journal of Engineering Structures, 72, pp.##102112 (2014).##16. MurciaDelso, J., Stavridis, A., and Shing, B. Modeling##the bondslip behavior of conned large diameter##reinforcing bars", III ECCOMAS Thematic##Conference on Computational Methods in Structural##Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Corfu, Greece##Biographies##Mojtaba Fathi was born in Kermanshah. He received##his BS degree from Tehran University and his MS##and PhD degrees from Tarbiat Modares University of##Tehran in 1997 and 2004, respectively. At present, he##works as an Assistant Professor at the Department of##Civil Engineering in Razi University.##Mahdi Parvizi was born in Kermanshah. At the##moment, he is a PhD student of Structural Civil##Engineering at Razi university. He obtained his BS##degree from Jondi Shapoor University of Dezfool in##2010, and his MS degree from Amir Kabir University##Javad Karimi obtained his BS degree in Civil Engineering##from University of Tabriz in 2014; then, he##received his MS degree in Structural Civil Engineering##from Razi University in 2016. His thesis eld concerns##the modelling of precast concrete connection failure.##uency in programming (Matlab), analysis##program (Abaqus), design programs in the elds of##structural design, the architecture, such as Auto##Cad*3dMax*civil3d*safe*SAP*Etabs. In addition,##uent in English and holds a degree in International##TOEFL. He is a design engineer, supervisor, and##enforcer in the Engineering Organization of Hamedan##Mohammad Hossein Afreidoun was born in Kermanshah.##At the moment, he is a PhD student of##Structural Civil Engineering at Razi University. He##obtained his BS and MS degrees in Structural Civil##Engineering from Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah##and Razi University of Kermanshah, respectively,##in 2008 and 2013.##]
1

Nearfault ground motion effects on the responses of tall reinforced concrete walls with bucklingrestrained brace outriggers
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4205.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4205
1
In this paper, responses of reinforced concrete corewall structures connected to the outside columns by bucklingrestrained brace (BRB) outriggers in tall buildings were investigated. These buildings are subjected to forward directivity near fault (NF) and ordinary farfault (FF) ground motions. According to the current codes for the DBE level, the response spectrum analysis procedure was applied to analyze and design the structures. The nonlinear fiber element approach was used to simulate the reinforced concrete corewalls. Nonlinear time history analysis was implemented using 14 NF as well as 14 FF records at MCE level. In the corewall, the results show that the mean moment demand envelope as well as the mean shear demand envelope obtained from the NF records are approximately similar to the corresponding demand envelope from FF records. The reason has to do with extending plasticity all over the RC corewall which is subjected to both sets of records. The overall responses of the reinforced concrete corewall with BRB outrigger system is in acceptable range both for NF and FF earthquakes. In this study, the largest curvature ductility demand in the reinforced concrete corewall took place at levels just above the outriggers.
0

1987
1999


Hamid
Beiraghi
Department of Civil Engineering, Mahdishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mah
dishahr, Iran.
+98
9122093893
Iran
h.beiraghi@mshiau.ac.ir
Reinforced concrete
corewall
plastic hinge
BRB
outrigger
NLTHA
nearfault
[References##1. Rahgozar, R. and Shari, Y. An approximate analysis##of framed tube shear core and belt truss in highrise##building", Structural Design of Tall and Special##Buildings, 18, pp. 607624 (2009).##2. Smith, B.S. and Coull, A., Tall Building Structures:##Analysis and Design, 1 Ed., New York: John Wiley &##Sons Inc (2011).##3. Smith, B.S. and Salim, I. Parameter study of##outriggerbraced tall building structuresm", Journal of##the Structural Division, 107(10), pp. 20012014 (1981).##4. Taranath, B.S., Structural Analysis and Design of Tall##Buildings, New York, McGraw Hill (1988).##5. Malekinejad, M. and Rahgozar, R. Free vibration##analysis of tall buildings with outriggerbelt truss##system", Earthquake and Structures, 2(1), pp. 89107##6. Zhu, Y. Inner force analysis of framecore structure##with horizontal outrigger belts", Journal of Building##Structures, 10, pp. 1015 (1995).##7. Taranath, B.S. Optimum belt truss location for high##rise structures", Engineering Journal, 11(1), pp. 1821##8. Rutenberg, A. and Tal, D. Lateral load response of##belted tall building structures", Engineering Structures,##9(1), pp. 5367 (1987).##9. Wu, J.R. and Li, Q.S. Structural performance of##multioutriggerbraced tall buildings", The Structural##Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 12(2), pp. 155##176 (2003).##10. Zhou, Y. and Li, H. Analysis of a highrise steel structure##with viscous damped outriggers", The Structural##Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23(13), pp. 963##979 (2013).##11. Chang, C.M., Wang, Z., Spencer, B.F., and Chen, Z.##Semiactive damped outriggers for seismic protection##of highrise buildings", Smart Structures and Systems,##11(5), pp. 435451 (2013).##12. Bobby, S., Spence, M.J.S., Bernardini, E., and Kareem,##A. Performancebased topology optimization##for windexcited tall buildings: a framework", Engineering##Structures, 74, pp. 242255 (2014).##1998 H. Beiraghi/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1987{1999##13. Lee, S. and Tovar, A. Outrigger placement in tall##buildings using topology optimization", Engineering##Structures, 74, pp. 122129 (2014).##14. Chen, Y., McFarland, D., Wang, Z., Spencer, B., Jr.,##and Bergman, L.A. Analysis of tall buildings with##damped outriggers", Journal of Structure Engineering,##136(11), pp. 14351443 (2010).##15. Bosco, M. and Marino, E.M. Design method and##behavior factor for steel frames with buckling restrained##braces", Earthquake Engineering & Structural##Dynamics, 42, pp. 12431263 (2013).##16. AISC, Seismic Provision for Structural Steel Buildings,##American Institute of Steel Construction: Chicago##17. Asgarian, B. and Shokrgozar, H.R. BRBF response##modication factor", Journal of Constructional Steel##Research, 65, pp. 290298 (2009).##18. Kim, J., Park, J., and Kim, S. Seismic behavior factors##of buckling restrained braced frames", Structural##Engineering and Mechanics, 33(3), pp. 261284 (2009).##19. Klemencic, R., Fry, A., Hooper, J.D., and Morgen,##B.G. Performance based design of ductile concrete##core wall buildingsissues to consider before detail##analysis", The Structural Design of Tall and Special##Buildings, 16, pp. 599614 (2007).##20. CSA Standard A23.304, Design of Concrete Structures,##Canadian Standard Association: Rexdale,##Canada; 214 (2005).##21. NZS 3101 New Zealand standard, Part 1 The design##of concrete structures", Standards New Zealand:##Wellington, New Zealand (2006).##22. CEN EC8 Design of structures for earthquake resistance",##European Committee for Standardization:##Brussels, Belgium (2004).##23. Ghorbanirenani, I., Tremblay, R., Leger, P., and##Leclerc, M. Shake table testing of slender RC shear##walls subjected to eastern North America seismic##ground motions", Journal of Structural Engineering,##138(12), pp. 15151529 (2012).##24. Beiraghi, H., Kheyroddin, A., and Ka, M.A. Eect##of record scaling on the behavior of reinforced concrete##corewall buildings subjected to nearfault and farfault##earthquakes", Scientia Iranica A, 24(3), pp. 884##899 (2016).##25. Gerami, M. and Siahpolo, N. Proposition of a new##method for quick assessment of maximum beam ductility##in steel moment frame under higher mode eects",##Scientia Iranica A., 23(3), pp. 769787 (2016).##26. Bertero, V., Mahin, S., and Herrera, R. A seismic##design implications of nearfault San Fernando earthquake##records", Earthquake Engineering and Structural##Dynamics, 6(1), pp. 3142 (1978)##27. Anderson, J.C. and Bertero, V.V. Uncertainties in##establishing design earthquakes", Journal of Structural##Engineering, 113(8), pp. 17091724 (1987).##28. Baker, J.W. Quantitative classication of nearfault##ground motions using wavelet analysis", Bulletin of the##Seismological Society of America, 97(5), pp. 14861501##29. Gerami, M. and Abdollahzadeh D. Numerical study##on energy dissipation of steel moment resisting frames##under eect of earthquake vibrations", Advances in##Acoustics and Vibration, Article ID 510593, pp. 113##30. Gerami, M. and Abdollahzadeh, D. Estimation of##forward directivity eect on design spectra in near eld##of fault", J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(9), pp. 86708686##31. Mortezaei, A. and Ronagh, H.R. Plastic hinge length##of reinforced concrete columns subjected to both farfault##and nearfault ground motions having forward##directivity", Structural Design of Tall and Special##Buildings, 22(12), pp. 903926 (2013).##32. Somerville, P.G., Smith, N.F., Graves, R.W., and##Abrahamson, N.A. Modication of empirical strong##ground motion attenuation relations to include the##amplitude and duration eects of rupture directivity",##Seismological Research Letters, 68(1), pp. 199222##33. Beiraghi, H., Kheyroddin, A., and Ka, M.A. Forward##directivity nearfault and farfault ground motion##eects on the behavior of reinforced concrete wall##tall buildings with one and more plastic hinges",##The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings,##25(11), pp. 519539 (2016).##34. Taranath, B.S., Structural Analysis and Design of Tall##Buildings, New York, McGraw Hill (1988).##35. ETABS, Version 13.1.1. Computers and structures",##Inc.: Berkeley, California, USA (2013).##36. National Institute of Standards and Technology Seismic##design of castinplace concrete special structural##walls and coupling beams", NEHRP Seismic Design##Technical Brief No. 6 (2012).##37. ASCE/SEI 7 Minimum design loads for buildings and##other structures", American Society of Civil Engineers,##Reston, VA (2010).##38. ACI 31811 Building code requirements for structural##concrete and commentary", ACI Committee 318,##Farmington Hills (2011).##39. Sahoo, D.R. and Chao, S. Performancebased plastic##design method for bucklingrestrained braced frames",##Engineering Structures, 32, pp. 29502958 (2010).##40. Jones, P. and Zareian, F. Seismic response of a 40##storey bucklingrestrained braced frame designed for##the Los Angeles region", The Structural Design of Tall##and Special Buildings, 22(3), pp. 291299 (2013).##41. PERFORM3D Nonlinear analysis and performance##assessment for 3D structures", V.4.0.3., Computers##and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA (2011).##42. Leger, P. and Dussault, S. Seismicenergy dissipation##in MDOF structures", Journal of Structural Engineering,##118(5), pp. 12511269 (1992).##H. Beiraghi/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 1987{1999 1999##43. PERFORM3D Nonlinear analysis and performance##assessment for 3D structures", V.4, User Guide, Computers##and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, CA (2006).##44. Beiraghi, H., Kheyroddin, A., and Ka, M.A. Nonlinear##ber element analysis of a reinforced concrete shear##wall subjected to earthquake records", Transactions of##Civil Engineering, 39(C2+), pp. 409422 (2015)##45. Orakcal, K. and Wallace, J.W. Flexural modeling##of reinforced concrete wallsexperimental verication",##ACI Structural Journal, 103(2), pp. 196206 (2006).##46. Luu, H., Ghorbanirenani, I., Leger, P. and Tremblay,##R. Numerical modeling of slender reinforced concrete##shear wall shaking table tests under highfrequency##ground motions", Journal of Earthquake Engineering,##17(4), pp. 517542 (2013).##47. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N., and Park, R. Theoretical##stressstrain model for conned concrete",##ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 114(8), pp.##18041826 (1988)##48. LATBSDC An alternative procedure for seismic analysis##and design of tall buildings located in the Los##Angeles region", Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural##Design Council (2014).##49. Beiraghi, H., Kheyroddin, A., and Ka, M.A. Energy##dissipation of tall corewall structures with multiplastic##hinges subjected to forward directivity nearfault##and farfault earthquakes", The Structural Design##of Tall and Special Buildings, 25(15), pp. 801820##50. Applied Technology Council ATC72: Modeling and##acceptance criteria for seismic design and analysis of##tall building", ATC, Redwood City, CA (2010).##51. Nguyen, A.H., Chintanapakdee, C., and Hayashikawa,##T. Assessment of current nonlinear static procedures##for seismic evaluation of BRBF buildings", Journal of##Constructional Steel Research, 66(89), pp. 11181127##52. FEMA P695 Quantication of building seismic performance##factors (ATC63 Project)", Federal Emergency##Management Agency, Washington D.C. (2009)##53. Beiraghi, H. and Siahpolo, N. Seismic assessment of##RC corewall building capable of three plastic hinges##with outrigger", The Structural Design of Tall and##Special Buildings, 26(2), p. e1306 (2016).##54. Calugaru, V. and Panagiotou, M. Response of tall##cantilever wall buildings to strong pulse type seismic##excitation", Earthquake Engineering and Structural##Dynamics, 41, pp. 13011318 (2012).##]
1

Collocated Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshless (CMDLSM) method for solving quadratic partial differential equations
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4203.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4203
1
In this paper, a Collocated Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshfree (MDLSM) method is proposed and used for efficient solution of engineering problems. Background mesh is not required in the MDLSM method; hence the method is a truly meshfree method. Nodal points are used in the MDLSM methods to construct the shape functions while collocated points are used to form the least squares functional. In the original MDLSM method, the location of the nodal points and collocated points are the same. In the proposed Collocated Mixed Discrete Least Squares Meshfree (CMDLSM) method, a set of additional collocated points is introduced. It is expected that the accuracy of results is improved by using the additional collocated points. It is noted that the size of coefficient matrix is not increased in the proposed CMDLSM method compared with the MDLSM method. The required computational effort for solving the linear algebraic system of equations, therefore, is the same as that of MDLSM method. A set of benchmark numerical examples, cited in the literature, is used to evaluate the performance of proposed method. The results indicate that the accuracy of solutions is improved by using additional collocated points in the proposed CMDLSM method.
0

2000
2011


Saeb
Faraji
Department of
Civil &
Environmental Engineeri
ng, Amirkabir university of technology
Iran
saebfaraji@aut.ac.ir


M.
Kolahdoozan
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Iran
mklhdzan@aut.ac.ir


M.H.
Afshar
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology Narmak, Tehran, P.O. Box 16765163, Iran
Iran
mhafshar@iust.ac.ir
Meshfree
PDEs
DLSM
MDLSM
Collocated points
CMDLSM
[References##1. Eymard, R., Gallouot, T., and Herbin, R. Finite##volume methods", Handbook of Numerical Analysis, 7,##pp. 7131018 (2000).##2. Reddy, J.N., An Introduction to the Finite Element##Method, 2, McGrawHill, New York (1993).##3. De Sciarra, F.M. A nonlocal nite element approach##to nanobeams", Advances in Mechanical Engineering,##5, p. 720406 (2013).##2010 S. Faraji Gargari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2000{2011##4. De Sciarra, F.M. Finite element modelling of nonlocal##beams", Physica E: LowDimensional Systems and##Nanostructures, 59, pp. 144149 (2014).##5. De Sciarra, F.M. Variational formulations, convergence##and stability properties in nonlocal elastoplasticity",##International Journal of Solids and Structures,##45(7), pp. 23222354 (2008).##6. Liu, G.R., Meshfree Methods: Moving Beyond the##Finite Element Method, Taylor & Francis (2009).##7. Liu, G.R. and Nguyen, T.T., Smoothed Finite Element##Methods, CRC Press (2010).##8. Xue, B., Wu, S., Zhang, W., and Liu, G. A smoothed##FEM (SFEM) for heat transfer problems", International##Journal of Computational Methods, 10(01), p.##1340001 (2013).##9. Li, W., Chai, Y., Lei, M., and Liu, G. Analysis##of coupled structuralacoustic problems based on the##smoothed nite element method (SFEM)", Engineering##Analysis with Boundary Elements, 42, pp. 8491##10. Liu, G., Dai, K., and Nguyen, T. A smoothed nite##element method for mechanics problems", Computational##Mechanics, 39(6), pp. 859877 (2007).##11. Chen, Z., Zong, Z., Liu, M., Zou, L., Li, H., and Shu,##C. An SPH model for multiphase##ows with complex##interfaces and large density dierences", Journal of##Computational Physics, 283, pp. 169188 (2015).##12. Canelas, R.B., Crespo, A.J., Domnguez, J.M., Ferreira,##R.M., and GomezGesteira, M. SPHDCDEM##model for arbitrary geometries in free surface solid##ows", Computer Physics Communications, 202,##pp. 131140 (2016).##13. Koshizuka, S., Nobe, A., and Oka, Y. Numerical analysis##of breaking waves using the moving particle semiimplicit##method", International Journal for Numerical##Methods in Fluids, 26(7), pp. 751769 (1998).##14. Khanpour, M., Zarrati, A.R., Kolahdoozan, M., Shakibaeinia,##A., and Jafarinik, S. Numerical modeling##of free surface##ow in hydraulic structures using##Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics", Applied Mathematical##Modelling, 40(2324), pp. 98219834 (December##15. Shakibaeinia, A. and Jin, Y.C. MPS meshfree particle##method for multiphase##ows", Computer Methods##in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 229, pp. 1326##16. Khayyer, A. and Gotoh, H. Modied moving particle##semiimplicit methods for the prediction of 2D wave##impact pressure", Coastal Engineering, 56(4), pp. 419##440 (2009).##17. Chen, W.H. and Guo, X.M. Element free Galerkin##method for threedimensional structural analysis",##Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, 2(4),##pp. 497508 (2001).##18. Zhang, Z., Liew, K.M., Cheng, Y., and Lee, Y.##Analyzing 2D fracture problems with the improved##elementfree Galerkin method", Engineering Analysis##with Boundary Elements, 32(3), pp. 241250 (2008).##19. Singh, A., Singh, I.V., and Prakash, R. Meshless##element free Galerkin method for unsteady nonlinear##heat transfer problems", International Journal of Heat##and Mass Transfer, 50(5), pp. 12121219 (2007).##20. Atluri, S., Liu, H., and Han, Z. Meshless local##PetrovGalerkin (MLPG) mixed collocation method##for elasticity problems", CMCTECH Science Press##, 4(3), p. 141 (2006).##21. Lin, H. and Atluri, S. The meshless local Petrov##Galerkin (MLPG) method for solving incompressible##Navierstokes equations", CMESComputer Modeling##in Engineering and Sciences, 2(2), pp. 117142 (2001).##22. Naja, M., Arefmanesh, A., and Enjilela, V. Meshless##local PetrovGalerkin methodhigher Reynolds numbers##ow applications", Engineering Analysis with##Boundary Elements, 36(11), pp. 16711685 (2012).##23. Onate, E. and Idelsohn, S. A meshfree nite point##method for advectivediusive transport and##problems", Computational Mechanics, 21(45), pp.##283292 (1998).##24. Shojaei, A., Mudric, T., Zaccariotto, M., and##Galvanetto, U. A coupled meshless nite##point/Peridynamic method for 2D dynamic fracture##analysis", International Journal of Mechanical##Sciences, 119, pp. 419431 (2016).##25. ResondizFlores, E.O. and SaucedoZendejo, F.R.##Twodimensional numerical simulation of heat transfer##with moving heat source in welding using the nite##pointset method", International Journal of Heat and##Mass Transfer, 90, pp. 239245 (2015).##26. Liu, X., Liu, G., Tai, K., and Lam, K. Radial point##interpolation collocation method (RPICM) for partial##dierential equations", Computens & Mathematics##with Applications, 50(8), pp. 14251442 (2005).##27. Mohebbi, A., Abbaszadeh, M., and Dehghan, M. The##use of a meshless technique based on collocation and##radial basis functions for solving the time fractional##nonlinear Schrodinger equation arising in quantum##mechanics", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements,##37(2), pp. 475485 (2013).##28. Liu, X., Liu, G., Tai, K., and Lam, K. Radial point##interpolation collocation method (RPICM) for the solution##of nonlinear Poisson problems", Computational##Mechanics, 36(4), pp. 298306 (2005).##29. Cheng, M. and Liu, G. A novel nite point method for##ow simulation", International Journal for Numerical##Methods in Fluids, 39(12), pp. 11611178 (2002).##30. Liu, G., Kee, B.B., and Chun, L. A stabilized leastsquares##radial point collocation method (LSRPCM)##for adaptive analysis", Computer Methods in Applied##Mechanics and Engineering, 195(37), pp. 48434861##31. Kee, B.B., Liu, G., and Lu, C. A leastsquare##radial point collocation method for adaptive analysis in##linear elasticity", Engineering Analysis with Boundary##Elements, 32(6), pp. 440460 (2008).##S. Faraji Gargari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2000{2011 2011##32. Kee, B.B., Liu, G., and Lu, C. A regularized##leastsquares radial point collocation method (RLSRPCM)##for adaptive analysis", Computational Mechanics,##40(5), pp. 837853 (2007).##33. Kee, B.B., Liu, G., Zhang, G., and Lu, C. A residual##based error estimator using radial basis functions",##Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 44(9), pp.##631645 (2008).##34. Afshar, M., Amani, J., and Naisipour, M. A node enrichment##adaptive renement in discrete least squares##meshless method for solution of elasticity problems",##Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 36(3),##pp. 385393 (2012).##35. Kazeroni, S.N. and Afshar, M. An adaptive node##regeneration technique for the ecient solution of elasticity##problems using MDLSM method", Engineering##Analysis with Boundary Elements, 50, pp. 198211##36. Shobeyri, G. and Afshar, M. Corrected discrete leastsquares##meshless method for simulating free surface##ows", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements,##36(11), pp. 15811594 (2012).##37. Shobeyri, G. and Afshar, M. Adaptive simulation of##free surface##ows with discrete least squares meshless##(DLSM) method using a posteriori error estimator",##Engineering Computations, 29(8), pp. 794813 (2012).##38. Faraji, S., Afshar, M., and Amani, J. Mixed discrete##least square meshless method for solution of quadratic##partial dierential equations", Scientia Iranica, 21(3),##pp. 492504 (2014).##39. Amani, J., Afshar, M., and Naisipour, M. Mixed##discrete least squares meshless method for planar##elasticity problems using regular and irregular nodal##distributions", Engineering Analysis with Boundary##Elements, 36(5), pp. 894902 (2012).##40. Faraji, S., Kolahdoozan, M., and Afshar, M. Mixed##discrete least squares meshless method for solving the##linear and nonlinear propagation problems", Scientia##Iranica, 25(2), pp. 565578 (2018).##41. Firoozjaee, A.R. and Afshar, M.H. Discrete least##squares meshless method with sampling points for##the solution of elliptic partial dierential equations",##Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 33(1),##pp. 8392 (2009).##42. Liu, G.R. and Gu, Y.T., An Introduction to Meshfree##Methods and Their Programming, Springer Science &##Business Media (2005).##43. Liu, Y. A new boundary meshfree method with distributed##sources", Engineering Analysis with Boundary##Elements, 34(11), pp. 914919 (2010).##]
1

Flexural and shear strengthening of RC beams with NSM technique and manually made CFRP bars
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4207.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4207
1
In this paper, the efficiency of NSM method for both flexural and shear strengthening of RC beams were examined by applying an innovative manually made CFRP bar (MMFRP) as an alternative reinforcement composite material through experimental and numerical investigation. Experimental program was consisted of three inverted Tsection RC flexuraldominated beams and three rectangular section RC sheardominated beams with parameters of the length and anchoring of MMFRP bars and their inclination to the longitudinal axis of the beams. The structural performance of the tested beams and the Finite Element (FE) modeling approach including modes of failure, loaddeflection response and ultimate load capacity are presented and discussed. Test results indicated that using proposed MMFRP bars significantly improved the flexural resistance and shear capacity of deficient concrete beams. Furthermore reduction of the crack width and increase in the quantity and propagation of new cracks was observed in strengthened beams compared to control beam.
0

2012
2025


Mohammad Kazem
Sharbatdar
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
,
Postal Code: 3513119111
Iran
msharbatdar@semnan.ac.ir


M.
Jaberi
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Iran
2005.mostafa@gmail.com
Beams
Shear
Flexural strengthening
Composite Materials
numerical
NSM
[References##1. Benmokrane, B. and Masmoudi, R. FRP Cbar as##reinforcing rod for concrete structure", Proceedings of##the International Conference on FRP Composites in##Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures,##Montreal, pp. 181188 (1996).##2. Behzard, P., Sharbatdar, M.K., and Kheyroddin, A.##A dierent NSM FRP technique for strengthening##of RC twoway slabs with low clear cover thickness",##Scientia Iranica A, 23(2), pp. 52034 (2016).##3. Sattarifard, A.R., Sharbatdar, M.K., and Dalvand, A.##RC connections strengthened with FRP sheets using##grooves on the surface", International Journal of Civil##Engineering, 13(4A), pp. 43243 (2015).##4. ElHacha, R. and Rizkalla, SH. Near surface mounted##ber reinforced polymer reinforcements for##strengthening of concrete structures", ACI Structural##Journal, 101(5), pp. 71726 (2004).##5. Asplund, S.O. Strengthening bridge slabs with##grouted reinforcement", ACI Structural Journal, 45,##pp. 397406 (1994).##6. American Concrete Institute Technical Committee 440##Guide for the design and construction of externally##bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structure",##ACI 440.2R08 (2008).##7. De Lorenzis, L. and Teng, G.J. Near surface mounted##FRP reinforcement: An emerging technique for##strengthening structures", Journal of Composite Part##B, 38, pp. 119143 (2007).##8. De Lorenzis, L. and Nanni, A. Shear strengthening of##reinforced concrete beams with near surface mounted##FRP rods", ACI Structural Journal, 98(1), pp. 6068##9. Etman, E. External bonded shear reinforcement for##Tsection beams", Structural Concrete, 12(3), pp. 137##220 (2011).##10. Rizzo, A. and De Lorenzis, L. Behavior and capacity##of RC beams strengthened in shear with NSM FRP##reinforcement", Construction & Building Material, pp.##15551567 (2009).##11. Anwarul Islam, A.K.M. Eective methods of using##CFRP bars in shear strengthening of concrete girders",##Engineering Structural, pp. 70914 (2009).##12. Lim, D.H. Shear behavior of RC beams strengthened##with NSM and EB CFRP strip", Magazine of Concrete##Research, 62(3), pp. 211220 (2010).##13. Atalay, H.M., Akpinar, E., Hakan Erdogan, H., and##Vulas, Y.Z. Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete##M.K. Sharbatdar and M. Jaberi/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2012{2025 2025##Tbeams with fully or partially bonded brereinforced##polymer composites", Structural Concrete, 15(2), pp.##115276 (2014).##14. Jalali, M., Sharbatdar, M.K., Chen, J.F., and##Jandaghi Alaee, F. Shear strengthening of RC##beams using innovative manually made NSM FRP##bars", Construction & Building Material, pp. 9901000##15. Esfandi Sarafraz, M. and Danesh, F. New technique##exural strengthening of RC columns with NSM##FRP bars", Magazine of Concrete Research, 64(2), pp.##151161 (2012).##16. Micelli, F. and De Lorenzis, L. Nearsurface mounted##exural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams##with low concrete strength", Magazine of Concrete##Research, 166(5), pp. 295303 (2013).##17. Sharbatdar, M.K. Concrete columns and beams reinforced##with FRP bars and grids under monotonic##and reversed cyclic loading", PhD Thesis, Department##of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Canada##18. CAN/CSAS602, Design and construction of building##components with bre reinforced polymers", Canadian##Standards Association, Rexdale, Canada (2002).##19. ANSYS, FEA, Software and User's Manual" (2003).##20. American Concrete Institute Technical committee 446##Finite element analysis of fracture in concrete structures:##StateoftheArt", ACI 446.3R97.##21. ABAQUS FEA software and user's manual" (2004).##22. Godat, A., Neale, K.W. and Labossiere, P. Numerical##modeling of FRP shear strengthened reinforced##concrete beams", ASCE, Journal of Composite for##Construction, pp. 64049 (2007).##23. Chen, G.M., Chen, J.F., and Teng, J.G. On the nite##element modeling of RC beams shear strengthened##with FRP", Construction & Building Material, 32, pp.##1326 (2010).##24. Elyasian, I., Abdoli, N., and Ronagh, H.R. Evaluation##of parameters eective in FRP shear strengthening of##RC beams using FE method", Asian Journal Civil##Engineering (Building and Housing), 7, pp. 24957##25. Kachlakev, D. Finite element modeling of reinforced##concrete structures strengthened with FRP laminates",##Oregon Department of Transportation Research##Group, Final Report, SPR 316 (2002).##26. Santhakumar, R., Chandrasekaran, E., and Dhanaraj,##R. Analysis of retrotted reinforced concrete shear##beams using carbon ber composite", Journal Structural##Engineering, 4, pp. 6674 (2004).##27. Zhang, Z.C. and Hsu, C.T.T. Shear strengthening##of reinforced concrete beams using carbonberreinforced##polymer laminates", ASCE, Journal of##Composite for Construction, pp. 15869 (2005).##28. William, K.J. and Warnke, E.P. Constitutive model##for the triaxial behavior of concrete", Proceedings of##International Association for Bridge and Structural##Engineering, Bergamo (Italy): ISMES (1975).##29. Desayi, P. and Krishnan, S. Equation for the stressstrain##curve of concrete", J. Am. Concr. Inst., pp. 345##350 (1964).##30. Chen, G.M. Behavior and strength of RC beams##shear strengthened with externally bonded FRP reinforcement",##PhD Thesis, Department of Civil and##Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic##University, Hong Kong, China (2010).##31. Rahimi, R. and Hutchinson, A. Concrete beams##strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates",##ASCE Journal of Composite for Construction, pp. 44##56 (2001).##]
1

Estimation of van Genuchten SWCC model for unsaturated sands by means of the genetic programming
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4206.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4206
1
The van Genuchten Model (1980) is widelyused for the description of the SoilWater Characteristic Curve (SWCC) of a variety of soils. This study uses the Genetic Programming (GP) for the presentation of equations estimating the van Genuchten (vG) Model fitting parameters for unsaturated clean sand soils. Moreover, this study uses the data derived from the valid dataset of Benson et al. (2014), including 95 measured SWCCs in both drying and wetting phases. The data on the particle size distributions includes the finegrain percentage (Fines %), d60, d10, besides the residual and saturated volumetric water content and ), as the GP model inputs of set of terminal. As for the model outputs of set of terminal, the fitting parameters for the vG model include a and n. The functions used in the GP training were 'plus', 'minus', 'times', taken from the MATLAB default functions, 'mydivide' proposed by Silva (2007), and some other new power functions included by this study. Accordingly, new equations were presented for the estimation of vG Model fitting parameters for both forms of wetting and drying. Finally, to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed estimation equations, the GP results were evaluated and verified in different procedures.
0

2026
2038


A.
Taban
Department of Civil Engineering Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad
University,
Isfahan, Iran
Iran
am.taban@gmail.com


M . Mirmohammad
Sadeghi
Department of water and Natural Environment, Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Isfahan
Higher Education and Research Institute (IHEARI)
Iran


M.A.
Rowshanzamir
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran
Iran
mohamali@cc.iut.ac.ir
SWCC
van Genuchten Model
Unsaturated soils
Genetic programming
Fitting Parameters
[References##1. Krishnapillai, S.K. and Ravichandran, N. New soilwater##characteristic curve and its performance in the##A. Taban et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2026{2038 2037##niteelement simulation of unsaturated soils", Int. J.##Geomech., 12(3), pp. 209219 (2012).##2. ASTM standard D 683602, test methods for determination##of the soilwater characteristic curve for##desorption using a hanging column, pressure extractor,##chilled mirror hygrometer, and/or centrifuge annual##book of ASTM standards", 04.08, ASTM International,##West Conshohocken, PA (2003).##3. Nam, S., Gutierrez, M., Diplas, P., Petrie, J., Wayllace,##A., Lu, N., and Munoz, J.J. Comparison of##testing techniques and models for establishing the##SWCC of riverbank soils", Eng. Geol., 110(110), pp.##3347 (2009).##4. Wang, M., Pande, G.N., Kong, L.W., and Feng, Y.T.##Comparison of poresize distribution of soils obtained##by dierent methods", Int. J. of Geomech., 17(1), pp.##16 (2017).##5. Brooks, R. and Corey, A. Properties of porous media##ow", J. Irrigation and Drainage Division,##ASCE, 92(2), pp. 6188 (1966).##6. van Genuchten, M. A closedform equation for predicting##the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated##soils", Soil Science Society of America J., 44(5), pp.##892898 (1980).##7. Fredlund, D.G. and Xing, A. Equations for the soilwater##characteristic curve", Can. Geotech. J., 31(4),##pp. 521532 (1994).##8. Kosugi, K. General model for unsaturated hydraulic##conductivity for soils with lognormal poresize distribution",##Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63, pp. 270277 (1999).##9. Omuto, C.T. Biexponential model for water retention##characteristics", Geoderma., 149(16), pp. 235242##10. Frydman, S. and Baker, R. Theoretical soilwater##characteristic curves based on adsorption, cavitation,##and a double porosity model", Int. J. Geomech., 9(6),##pp. 250257 (2009).##11. Yang, H., Rahardjo, H., Leong, E.C., and Fredlund,##D.G. Factors aecting drying and wetting soilwater##characteristic curves of sandy soils", Canadian##Geotechnical Journal, 41, pp. 908920 (2004).##12. Arya, L.M., and Paris, J.F. A physicoempirical model##to predict the soil moisture characteristic from particlesize##distribution and bulk density data", Soil Sci. Soc.##Am. J., 45(6), pp. 10231030 (1981).##13. Simms, P.H. and Yanful, E.K. Predicting soilwater##characteristic curves of compacted plastic soils##from measured poresize distributions", Geotechnique,##52(4), pp. 269278 (2002).##14. Romero, E. and Simms, P.H. Microstructure investigation##in unsaturated soils: a review with special attention##to contribution of mercury intrusion porosimetry##and environmental scanning electron microscopy",##Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 26(6), pp.##705727 (2008).##15. Ghanbarian, B., Taslimitehrani A., Dong, G., and##Pachepsky, Y.A. Sample dimensions eect on prediction##of soil water retention curve and saturated##hydraulic conductivity", Journal of Hydrology, 528,##pp. 127137 (2015).##16. Rawls, W.J., Gish, T.J., and Brakensiek, D.L. Estimating##soil water retention from soil physical properties##and characteristics", Adv. Soil Sci., 16, pp. 213##234 (1991).##17. Zapata, C., Houston, W., Houston, S., and Walsh, K.##Soilwater characteristic curve variability", Advances##in Unsaturated Geotechnics, pp. 84124 (2000).##18. Benson, C.H., Chiang, I., Chalermyanont, T., and##Sawangsuriya, A. Estimating van Genuchten parameters##a and n for clean sands from particle size##distribution data", ASCE GSP, pp. 234235 (2014).##19. Johari, A., Habibagahi, G., and Ghahramani, A.##Prediction of soilwater characteristic curve using##genetic programming", Journal of Geotechnical and##Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(5), pp. 661665##20. Garg, A., Garg, A., Tai, K., Barontini, S., and##Stokes, A. A computational intelligencebased genetic##programming approach for the simulation of soil water##retention curves", Transp. Porous Media, 103(3), pp.##497513 (2014b).##21. ASTM Standard D42263 Standard test method for##particlesize analysis of soils, annual book of ASTM##standards", ASTM International, 04.08, West Conshohocken,##PA, pp. 129145 (2003).##22. Koza, J.R., A Paradigm for Genetically Breeding##Populations of Computer Programs to Solve Problems,##Computer Science Dept., Stanford Univ., Margaret##Jacks Hall, Stanford, Calif (1990).##23. Silva, S. GPLAB: A genetic programming toolbox for##MATLAB", Available at http://gplab.sourceforge.net##(veried 25 July 2007), Coimbra, Portugal (2007).##24. Parasuraman, K., Elshorbagy, A., and Si, B.C. Estimating##saturated hydraulic conductivity using genetic##programming", Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 71, pp. 1676##1684 (2007b).##25. Baker, K. Investigation of direct and indirect hydraulic##property laboratory characterization methods##for heterogeneous alluvial deposits: application to the##sandiatech vadose zone inltration test site", MS Thesis,##New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology,##Socorro, NM (2001).##26. RMA Rocky Mountain Arsenal", Final RCRAequivalent##cover demonstration project comparative##analysis and led demonstration scope of work", Dec.##1997, Rocky Mountain Arsenal Remediation Venture##Oce, Commerce City, CO (1997).##2038 A. Taban et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2026{2038##27. Rassam, D. and Williams, D. A numerical study of##steady state evaporative conditions applied to mine##tailings", Canadian Geotechnical J., 36, pp. 640650##28. Lu, N. and Likos, W., Unsaturated Soil Mechanics,##John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, p. 556 (2004).##29. Likos, W., Wayllace, A., Godt, J., and Lu, N. Modi##ed direct shear apparatus for unsaturated sands at##low suction and stress", Geotechnical Testing J., 33(4),##pp. 286298 (2010).##30. Tanahashi, H., Sato, T., and Konishi, J. Degree of imbibition##and residence oil saturation in porous media",##Proc. Creation of a New Geoenvironment, Fourth Kansai##International Geotechnical Forum, Kansai Branch##of the Japanese Geotechnical Society, Kyoto, Japan,##pp. 167172 (2000).##31. Baker, R. and Hillel, D. Laboratory test of a theory##of ngering during inltration into layered soils", Soil##Science Society of America J., 54, pp. 2030 (1990).##32. Stormont, J. and Anderson, C. Capillary barrier eect##from underlying coarser soil layer", J. Geotechnical##Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 125(8), pp.##641648 (1999).##]
1

Probabilistic model of unsaturated slope stability considering the uncertainties of soilwater characteristic curve
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4202.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4202
1
Many soil slopes are unsaturated and failure of them can be a major cause of damage to structures. Apart from soil properties, the SoilWater Characteristic Curve (SWCC) is the backbone of any unsaturated slope analysis. Uncertainties of these effective parameters of unsaturated slopes cause the probabilistic analysis to be more realistic rather than deterministic. In this research, the stochastic analysis of unsaturated slope stability is carried out based on simplified Bishop’s method. The stochastic parameters are the input parameters of SWCC in addition to effective internal angle of friction, effective cohesion and unit weight of soil. Based on the collected results from hundreds of stochastic analyses, the probability of failure is presented as a three dimensional surface. Finally, probabilistic model is developed to model this surface and evaluate the probability of failure as function of safety factor and its correlation of variation.
0

2039
2050


A.
Johari
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Iran
johari@sutech.ac.ir


A.
Hooshmand Nejad
Department of
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Iran
a.hooshmandnejad@sutech.ac.ir


S.
Mousavi
Department of
Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Iran
s.mousavi@sutech.ac.ir
Unsaturated soils
Slope stability
Soilwater characteristic curve
Artificial intelligence
Probabilistic model
[References##1. Tarantino, A. and El Mountassir, G. Making unsaturated##soil mechanics accessible for engineers: Preliminary##hydraulicmechanical characterisation stability##assessment", Eng. Geol., 165, pp. 89104 (2013).##2. Fredlund, D.G. and Rahardjo, H., Soil Mechanics for##Unsaturated Soils, John Wiley & Sons (1993).##3. Bergardo, D.T. and Anderson, L.R. Stochastic analysis##of pore pressure uncertainty for the probabilistic##assessment of the safety of earth slopes", Soils Found,##25(2), pp. 85105 (1985).##4. Gui, S., Zhang, R., Turner, J.P., and Xue, X. Probabilistic##slope stability analysis with stochastic soil##hydraulic conductivity", J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental##Eng., 126(1), pp. 19 (2000).##5. Sivakumar Babu, G.L. and Murthy, D.S. Reliability##analysis of unsaturated soil slopes", J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental##Eng., 131(11), pp. 14231428 (2005).##6. Wol, T.F. Probabilistic slope stability in theory and##practice", Uncertainty in the Geologic Environment##from Theory to Practice, pp. 419433 (1996).##7. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, RiskBased Analysis##in Geotechnical Engineering for Support of Planning##Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, DC##8. Ali, A., Huang, J., Lyamin, A.V., Sloan, S.W., Grif##ths, D.V., Cassidy, M.J., and Li, J.H. Simplied##quantitative risk assessment of rainfallinduced landslides##modelled by innite slopes", Eng. Geol., 179,##pp. 102116 (2014).##9. Cho, S.E. Probabilistic stability analysis of rainfallinduced##landslides considering spatial variability of##permeability", Eng. Geol., 171, pp. 1120 (2014).##10. Zhang, J., Huang, H.W., Zhang, L.M., Zhu, H.H., and##Shi, B. Probabilistic prediction of rainfallinduced##slope failure using a mechanicsbased model", 168, pp.##129140 (2014).##A. Johari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2039{2050 2049##11. Ng, C.W. and Menzies, B., Advanced Unsaturated Soil##Mechanics and Engineering, CRC Press (2007).##12. Bishop, A.W. and Morgenstern, N. Stability coe##cients for earth slopes", Geotechnique, 10(4), pp. 129##153 (1960).##13. Johari, A. and Hooshmandnejad, A. Prediction of##soilwater characteristic curve using gene expression##programming", Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Civ. Eng.,##39(C1), pp. 143165 (2015).##14. SoilVision 2002, SoilVision System Ltd., Sask.,##Saskatchewan."##15. Green, W.H. and Ampt, G. Studies of soil physics,##Part I  The##ow of air and water through soils", Agric##Sci, 4, pp. 124 (1911).##16. Richards, L.A. Capillary conduction of liquids##through porous mediums", Phys., 1, pp. 318333##17. Simunek, J., Van Genuchten, M., and Sejna, M. The##Hydrus1D software package for simulating the movement##of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably##saturated media, Version 4.16, HYDRUS Software##Series 3", Dep. Environ. Sci. Univ. Calif. Riverside##Riverside Calif. USA, p. 340 (2013).##18. Kennedy, J. Particle swarm optimization", in Encyclopedia##of Machine Learning, C. Sammut and G.I.##Webb, Eds. Springer US, pp. 760766 (2010).##19. Poli, R., Kennedy, J., and Blackwell, T. Particle##swarm optimization", Swarm Intell., 1(1), pp. 3357##20. Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R. Particle swarm optimization",##in IEEE International Conference on Neural##Networks, Proceedings, 4, pp. 19421948 (1995).##21. Griths, D.V. and Lu, N. Unsaturated slope stability##analysis with steady inltration or evaporation using##elastoplastic nite elements", Int. J. Numer. Anal.##Methods Geomech., 29(3), pp. 249267 (2005).##22. Griths, D.V., Huang, J., and Fenton, G.A. In##of spatial variability on slope reliability using 2D##random elds", J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng.,##135(10) (2009).##23. Faradonbeh, R.S., Armaghani, D.J., Monjezi, M.,##and Mohamad, E.T. Genetic programming and gene##expression programming for##yrock assessment due to##mine blasting", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 88, pp.##254264 (2016).##24. Alkroosh, I. and Nikraz, H. Predicting pile dynamic##capacity via application of an evolutionary algorithm",##Soils Found., 54(2), pp. 233242 (2014).##25. Mollahasani, A., Alavi, A.H., and Gandomi, A.H.##Empirical modeling of plate load test moduli of soil##via gene expression programming", Comput. Geotech.,##38(2), pp. 281286 (2011).##26. Johari, A., Javadi, A.A., and Naja, H. A genetic##based model to predict of maximum lateral displacement##of retaining wall in granular soil", Sci. Iran.,##23(1), pp. 5465 (2016).##27. Taormina, R. and Chau, K.W. Datadriven input##variable selection for rainfallruno modeling using##binarycoded particle swarm optimization and extreme##learning machines", J. Hydrol., 529(3), pp. 16171632##28. Wu, C.L., Chau, K.W., and Li, Y.S. Methods to##improve neural network performance in daily##prediction", J. Hydrol., 372(14), pp. 8093 (2009).##29. Chen, X.Y., Chau, K.W., and Busari, A.O. A##comparative study of populationbased optimization##algorithms for downstream river##ow forecasting by##a hybrid neural network model", Eng. Appl. Artif.##Intell., 46(A), pp. 258268 (2015).##30. Ferreira, C. Gene expression programming: a new##adaptive algorithm for solving problems", ArXiv##Prepr. Cs0102027 (2001).##31. Javankhoshdel, S. and Bathurst, R.J. Simplied probabilistic##slope stability design charts for cohesive and##c' soils", Can Geotech J, 51(9), pp. 10331045 (2014).##32. Phoon, K.K. and Kulhawy, F.H. Characterization of##geotechnical variability.", Can Geotech J, 36(4), pp.##612624 (1999).##33. GEPSOFT. GeneXproTools. Version 4.0. Available##online: http://www.gepsoft.com (2006).##34. Johari, A. and Khodaparast, A.R. Modelling of##probability liquefaction based on standard penetration##tests using the jointly distributed random variables##method", Engineering Geology, 158, pp. 114 (2013).##35. Johari, A., Mousavi, S., and Hooshmand Nejad, A.##A seismic slope stability probabilistic model based on##Bishop's method using analytical approach", Scientia##Iranica, 22(3), pp. 728741 (2015).##]
1

Efficient multiobjective optimization algorithms for construction site layout problem
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_4216.html
10.24200/sci.2017.4216
1
Construction site layout planning is one of the managerial aspects of the construction industry and has significant impacts on performance of the sites. Since in real site layout optimization, many objectives are involved, therefore multiobjective algorithms are needed. In this study, multiobjective version of two metaheuristics, CBO and ECBO, are developed and their applicability and performance are checked on a case study. The quality of the results obtained, verify the ability of these algorithms in finding optimal pareto front on this problem. Another tool that is utilized in this study is data envelopment analysis (DEA) which by calculating the efficiency of optimal pareto front layouts, can help decision makers to select the final layout among the candidates. It should be mentioned that the DEA has previously been used in models with multiple inputs and outputs.
0

2051
2062


A.
Kaveh
Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, P.O. Box 1684613114, Iran
Iran
alikaveh@iust.ac.ir


M.
Rastegar Moghaddam
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran,
b
P.O. Bo
x 16846

13114, Iran
Iran


M.
Khanzadi
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran,
b
P.O. Bo
x 16846

13114, Iran
Iran
khanzadi@iust.ac.ir
site construction layout problems
multiobjective optimization
colliding bodies optimization
Data envelopment analysis
optimal pareto front
[References##1. Sadeghpour, F. and Andayesh, M. The constructs of##site layout modeling: an overview", Canad. J. Civil##Eng., 42(3), pp. 199212 (2015).##2. Tommelein, I.D., Levitt, R.E., and HayesRoth, B.##Sight plan model for site layout", Knowl Creat Dius##Util., 118(4), pp. 749766 (1991).##3. Li, H. and Love, P.E. Genetic search for solving construction##sitelevel unequalarea facility layout problems",##Automat Construct., 9(2), pp. 217226 (2000).##4. Lien, L.C. and Cheng, M.Y. A hybrid swarm intelligence##based particlebee algorithm for construction##site layout optimization", Expert Syst Applic., 39(10),##pp. 96429650 (2012).##5. For, L., Around, R., Tam, B.C.M., Tong, T.K.L.,##and Chan, W.K.W. Genetic algorithm for optimizing##supply locations around tower crane", J. Construct##Eng. Manag., 127(4), pp. 315321 (2001).##6. Cheung, S.O. Tong, T.K.L., and Tam, C.M. Site precast##yard layout arrangement through genetic algorithms",##Automat Construct., 11, pp. 3546 (2002).##7. Xu, J. and Li, Z. Multiobjective dynamic construction##site layout planning in fuzzy random environment",##Automat Construct., 27, pp. 155169 (2012).##8. Yahya, M. and Saka, M.P. Construction site layout##planning using multiobjective articial bee colony##algorithm with Levy##ights", Automat Construct., 38,##pp. 1429 (2014).##9. Hammad, A.W.A. Akbarnezhad, A., and Rey, D. A##multiobjective mixed integer nonlinear programming##model for construction site layout planning to minimise##noise pollution and transport costs", Automat##Construct., 61, pp. 7385 (2016).##10. ElRayes, K., Asce, M., and Khalafallah, A. Tradeo##between safety and cost in planning construction##site layouts", J. Constuct Eng. Manag., 131(11), pp.##11861195 (2005).##11. Yeh, I.C. Architectural layout optimization using##annealed neural network", Automat Construct., 15(4),##pp. 531539 (2006).##12. Lam, K.C., Tang, C.M., and Lee, W.C. Application##of the entropy technique and genetic algorithms##to construction site layout planning of mediumsize##projects", Construct Manag Econom., 23(2), pp. 127##145 (2005).##13. Calis, G. and Yuksel, O. An improved ant colony##optimization algorithm for construction site layout##problems", J. Build Construct Plan Res., 3, pp. 221##232 (2015).##14. Lam, K., Ning, X., and Ng, T. The application of##the ant colony optimization algorithm to the construction##site layout planning problem", Construct Manag##Econom., 25(4), pp. 359374 (2007).##15. Adrian, A.M., Utamima, A., and Wang, K.J. A##comparative study of GA, PSO and ACO for solving##construction site layout optimization", KSCE J. Civil##Eng., 19(3), pp. 520527 (2014).##16. Zhang, H. and Wang, J.Y. Particle swarm optimization##for construction site unequalarea layout", J.##Construct Eng. Manag., 134(9), pp. 739748 (2008).##17. Lien, L.C. and Cheng, M.Y. A hybrid swarm intelligence##based particlebee algorithm for construction site##layout optimization", Expert Syst. Applic., 39(10), pp.##96429650 (2012).##18. Kaveh, A., Shakouri Mahmud Abadi, A., and##Zolfaghari Moghaddam, S. An adapted harmony##search based algorithm for facility layout optimization",##Int. J. Civil Eng., 10(1), pp. 16 (2012).##19. Kaveh, A., Khanzadi, M., Alipour, M., and Moghaddam,##M.R. Construction site layout planning problem##using two new metaheuristic algorithms", Iranian J.##Sci. Technol., Civil Eng. Trans., 40(4), pp. 263275##20. Ning, X., Lam, K.C., and Lam, M.C.K. A decisionmaking##system for construction site layout planning",##Autom Construct., 20(4), pp. 459473 (2011).##21. Azadeh, A., Motevali Haghighi, S., Asadzadeh, S.M.,##and Saedi, H. A new approach for layout optimization##in maintenance workshops with safety factors: The##case of a gas transmission unit", J. Loss Prevent Proc.##Indust., 26(6), pp. 14571465 (2013).##22. Kaveh, A. and Mahdavi, V.R. Colliding bodies optimization:##A novel metaheuristic method", Comput##Struct., 139, pp. 1827 (2014).##23. Kaveh, A. and Ilchi Ghazaan, M. Enhanced colliding##bodies optimization for design problems with continuous##and discrete variables", Adv. Eng. Softw., 77, pp.##6675, (2014).##24. Deb, K., Pratap, A., Agarwal, S., and Meyarivan, T.##A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm:##NSGAII", IEEE Trans Evol Comput., 6(2), pp. 182##197 (2002).##25. Kaveh, A., Advances in Metaheuristic Algorithms for##Optimal Design of Structures, Springer International##Publishing, Switzerland, 2nd edition, (2017).##26. Kaveh, A., Applications of Metaheuristic Optimization##Algorithms in Civil Engineering, Springer, Switzerland##2062 A. Kaveh et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2051{2062##27. Farrell, M.J. The measurement of productive e##ciency", J.R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A, 120(3), pp. 253290##28. Charnes, A. Cooper, W.W., and Rhodes, E. Measuring##the eciency of decision making units", European##J. Oper. Res., 2(6), pp. 429444 (1978).##]
1

Improving shallow foundations resting on saturated loose sand by a zeolitecement mixture: A laboratory study
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_20208.html
10.24200/sci.2018.50153.1567
1
Improvement of sands is frequently carried out by cement together with several other additives. The common additives have high manufacturing costs and negative environmental impacts during their manufacturing process and recycling in nature. Zeolite as a mineral substance for cement replacement can improve the strength parameters of a treated sand, without the negative deficiencies of the common additives. In this study, unconfined compression strength (UCS) and smallscale 1g model tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical features of zeolitetreated sand and to study the behavior of shallow foundations rested on zeolite pad, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that the UCS of the cemented sand samples increase when the cement is replaced by zeolite at an optimum proportion of 40% with 14 and 28 days curing times. Adding this amount of zeolite to cemented sand mixture causes an increase in terms of the improvement rate between 40% and 125% and increases the bearing capacity ratio (BCR) of the strip foundation treated by zeolite pad in the range of 11% and 420%. In addition, zeolite pad leads to decline the settlement of the treated strip footing from 16% to 86% in terms of the settlement reduction ratio (SRR).
0

2063
2076


Sina
Salamatpoor
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
s_salamatpoor@sci.iaun.ac.ir


Yaser
Jafarian
International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES)
Iran
yjafarianm@iiees.ac.ir


Alborz
Hajiannia
Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
alborzhajian@pci.iaun.ac.ir
Stabilized sand
Shallow footing
Zeolite
Unconfined compression strength
Smallscale 1g test
[References##1. Mehta, P.K. Reducing the environmental impact of##concrete", Concrete International, 23(10), pp. 6166##2. Damtoft, J.S., Lukasik, J., Herfort, D., Sorrentino,##D., and Gartner, E.M. Sustainable development and##climate change initiatives", Cement and Concrete Research,##38(2), pp. 115127 (2008).##3. Khajeh, A., MolaAbasi, H., and Naderi Semsani,##S. Parameters controlling tensile strength of zeolite##cemented sands", Scientia Iranica A (In Press). DOI:##10.24200/sci.2017.4585.##4. Perraki, T., Kakali, G., and Kontoleon, F. The eect##of natural zeolites on the early hydration of Portland##cement", Microporous and Mesoporous Materials,##61(13), pp. 205212 (2003).##5. Caputo, D., Liguori, B., and Colella, C. Some##advances in understanding the pozzolanic activity of##zeolites: The eect of zeolite structure", Cement and##Concrete Research, 30(5), pp. 455462 (2008).##6. Canpolat, F., Ylmaz, K., Kose, M.M., Sumer, M.,##and Yurdusev, M.A. Use of zeolite, coal bottom##y ash as replacement materials in cement##production", Cement and Concrete Research, 34(5),##pp. 731735 (2004).##7. Tuncan, A., Tuncan, M., Koyuncu, H., and Guney,##Y. Use of natural zeolites as a landll liner", Waste##Management & Research, 21(1), pp. 5461 (2003).##8. Jafarian, Y., Mehrzad, B., Lee, C.J., and Haddad,##A.H. Centrifuge modeling of seismic foundationsoilfoundation##interaction on liqueable sand", Soil Dynamics##and Earthquake Engineering, 97, pp. 184204##9. Jafarian, Y., Haddad, A., and Mehrzad, B. Loadsettlement##mechanism of shallow foundations rested##on saturated sand with upward seepage", International##Journal of Geomechanics, 17(3), pp. 114 (2016).##10. Dash, S.K., Krishnaswamy, N.R., and Rajagopal,##K. Bearing capacity of strip footings supported on##geocellreinforced sand", Geotextiles and Geomembranes,##19(4), pp. 235256 (2001).##11. ASTM D422 Standard test method for particlesize##analysis of soils", ASTM International, West Conshohocken,##PA (2003).##12. Jafarian, Y., Ghorbani, A., Salamatpoor S. and##Salamatpoor, S. Monotonic triaxial experiments to##evaluate steadystate and liquefaction susceptibility##of Babolsar sand", Journal of Zhejiang University##ScienceA, 14(10), pp. 739750 (2013).##13. Jafarian, Y., Javdanian, H., and Haddad, A. Dynamic##properties of calcareous and siliceous sands under##isotropic and anisotropic stress conditions", Soils and##Foundations, 58(1), pp. 172184 (2018).##14. Salamatpoor, S. and Salamatpoor, S. Evaluation of##Babolsar sand behaviour by using static triaxial tests##and comparison with case history", Open Journal of##Civil Engineering, 4(3), pp. 181197 (2014).##15. ASTM C150/C150M17 Standard specication for##Portland cement", ASTM International, West Conshohocken,##PA (2017).##16. ASTM C11411 Standard test methods for chemical##analysis of hydraulic cement", ASTM International,##West Conshohocken, PA (2011).##17. ASTM D2166 Standard test method for unconned##compressive strength of cohesive soil", ASTM International,##West Conshohocken, PA (2006).##18. Ladd, R.S. Preparing test specimens using under##compaction", Geotechnical Testing Journal, 1(1), pp.##1623 (1978).##19. Liu, C. and Evett, J.B., Soils and Foundations, 4th##Edn., Pearson Education, New Jersey (2004).##20. ASTM D119472 Standard test method for bearing##capacity of soil for static load and spread footings",##ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (1987).##21. Wood, D.M., Geotechnical Modeling, E. & F.N. Spon##Press, London (2004).##22. VargasMonge, W. Ring shear tests on large deformation##of sand", Ph.D. thesis, University of Tokyo (1998).##23. Bishop, A.W., Green, G.E., Garga, V.K., Andresen, A.##and Brown, J.D. A new ring shear apparatus and its##application to the measurement of residual strength",##Geotechnique, 21(4), pp. 273328 (1971).##24. Kagawa, T. On the similitude in model vibration tests##of earth structures", In Proceedings on Japan Society##of Civil Engineers, pp. 6977 (1978).##25. Iai, S. Similitude for shaking table tests on soilstructure##uid model in 1g gravitational eld", Soils##and Foundations, 29(1), pp. 105118 (1989).##26. Towhata, I., Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering,##Springer, Berlin (2007).##27. Otsubo, M., Towhata, I., Hayashida, T., Liu, B. and##Goto, S. Shaking table tests on liquefaction mitigation##of embedded lifelines by backll with recycled##materials", Soils and Foundations, 56(3), pp. 365378##2076 S. Salamatpoor et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 25 (2018) 2063{2076##28. Mitchell J.K. Soil improvementStateoftheart report",##In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference##on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,##Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 509565 (1981).##29. De Beer, E.E. Experimental determination of the##shape factors and the bearing capacity factors of sand",##Geotechnique, 20(4), pp. 387411 (1970).##30. Vesic, A.S. Analysis of ultimate loads of shallow##foundations", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations##Division, 99(1), pp. 4573 (1973).##31. Das, B.M., Shallow Foundations: Bearing Capacity##and Settlement, 2nd Edn., CRC Press (2009).##32. Liu, L. and Dobry, R. Seismic response of shallow##foundation on liqueable sand", Journal of Geotechnical##and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123(6), pp.##557567 (1997).##33. Adalier, K., Elgamal, A., Meneses, J. and Baez, J.I.##Stone columns as liquefaction counter measure in##nonplastic silty soils", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake##Engineering, 23(7), pp. 571584 (2003).##34. Dashti, S., Bray, J.D., Pestana, J.M., Riemer, M.##and Wilson, D. Mechanisms of seismically induced##settlement of buildings with shallow foundations on##liqueable soil", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental##Engineering, 136(1), pp. 151164 (2010).##35. Binquet, J. and Lee, K.L. Bearing capacity tests on##reinforced earth slabs", Journal of the Geotechnical##Engineering Division, 101(12), pp. 12411255 (1975).##]