ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Collapse of reticulated domes: A case study of Talakan oil tank
In this paper, instability of single layer reticulated domes is discussed. This purpose is elaborated by a case study on Talakan oil tank dome which is analyzed in this work with research package. This paper provides technical information related to the design, fabrication and collapse of Talakan dome. The secondary paths, especially in unstable buckling, can play an important role in the loss of stability and led to failure of the structure. The authors show that the stiffness of the dome is not adequate to prevent buckling under the prescribed snow loads. It is also shown that the capacity of the dome to resist eccentric snow load is about half of its capacity to resist symmetric snow loads. Although six combinations of load and support fixity are included in design assumptions, considerable attention has been focused on the bifurcation behavior in Talakan dome. The stiffness of the aluminum sheets of the roof cover have not been taken into account in the stability analysis.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21239_eadd0087245c6eba86b3814d328523cb.pdf
2020-10-01
2177
2188
10.24200/sci.2019.21239
bifurcation point
secondary path
reticulated dome
unstable buckling
eccentric load
A.
Heidari
qvspyner@scientiaunknown.non
1
School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tehran University, Enghelab Ave., Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
H.
Karimi
karimi@kntu.ac.ir
2
School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tehran University, Enghelab Ave., Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
I.
Mahmoudzadeh Kani
3
School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tehran University, Enghelab Ave., Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
1. L_opez, A., Puente, I., and Serna, M.A. Direct evaluation of the buckling loads of semi-rigidly jointed single-layer latticed domes under symmetric loading", Engineering Structures, 29(1), pp. 101{109 (2007). 2. Guan, Y., Virgin, L.N., and Helm, D. Structural behavior of shallow geodesic lattice domes", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 155, pp. 225{ 239 (2018). 3. Kaveh, A. and Rezaei, M. Topology and geometry optimization of single-layer domes utilizing CBO and ECBO", Scientia Iranica, 23(2), pp. 535{547 (2016). 4. Makowski, Z.S. Space structures of today and tomorrow", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 6(1), p. 86 (1986). 5. Yuan, X.-F., Zhou, L., and Duan, Y.-F. Singularity and kinematic bifurcation analysis of pin-bar mechanisms using analogous sti_ness method", International A. Heidari et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2177{2188 2187 Journal of Solids and Structures, 49(10), pp. 1212{ 1226 (2012). 6. B_alut, N. and Gioncu, V. The inuence of geometrical tolerances on the behaviour of space structures", International Journal of Space Structures, 15(3), pp. 189{194 (2000). 7. Kameshki, E.S. and Saka, M.P. Optimum geometry design of nonlinear braced domes using genetic algorithm", Computers & Structures, 85(1{2), pp. 71{79 (2007). 8. Jagannathan Dharapuram, S., Epstein Howard, I., and Christiano Paul, P. Nonlinear analysis of reticulated space trusses", ASCE J Struct Div, 101(12), pp. 2641{ 2658 (1975). 9. Xiong, Z., Guo, X., Luo, Y., and Zhu, S. Elastoplastic stability of single-layer reticulated shells with aluminium alloy gusset joints", Thin-Walled Structures, 115, pp. 163{175 (2017). 10. Ramalingam, R. and Jayachandran, S.A. Postbuckling behavior of exibly connected single layer steel domes", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 114, pp. 136{145 (2015). 11. Kato, S., Kim, J.-M., and Cheong, M.-C. A new proportioning method for member sections of single layer reticulated domes subjected to uniform and nonuniform loads", Engineering Structures, 25(10), pp. 1265{1278 (2003). 12. Makowski, Z.S., Analysis, design, and construction of braced domes, Nichols Pub. Co., New York (1984). 13. Spillers, W.R. and Levy, R. Truss design: two loading conditions with prestress", Computer-Aided Design, 16(6), p. 339 (1984). 14. Kani, I.M. and Heidari, A. Automatic two-Stage calculation of bifurcation path of perfect shallow reticulated domes", Journal of Structural Engineering, 133(2), pp. 185{194 (2007). 15. Dul_acska, E. and Koll_ar, L. Buckling analysis of reticulated shells", International Journal of Space Structures, 15(3), pp. 195{203 (2000). 16. Bkachut, J. Combined axial and pressure buckling of shells having optimal positive Gaussian curvature", Computers & Structures, 26(3), pp. 513{519 (1987). 17. Chan, S.L. A non-linear numerical method for accurate determination of limit and bifurcation points", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 36(16), pp. 2779{2790 (1993). 18. Magnusson, A. Treatment of bifurcation points with asymptotic expansion", Computers & Structures, 77(5), pp. 475{484 (2000). 19. Camescasse, B., Fernandes, A., and Pouget, J. Bistable buckled beam and force actuation: Experimental validations", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 51(9), pp. 1750{1757 (2014). 20. Madhukar, A., Perlitz, D., Grigola, M., Gai, D., and Jimmy Hsia, K. Bistable characteristics of thickwalled axisymmetric domes", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 51(14), pp. 2590{2597 (2014). 21. Plaut, R.H. Snap-through of arches and buckled beams under unilateral displacement control", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 63, pp. 109{ 113 (2015). 22. Plaut, R.H. Snap-through of shallow reticulated domes under unilateral displacement control", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 148{149, pp. 24{34 (2018). 23. Kiyohiro, I., Kazuo, M., and Hiroshi, F. Bifurcation hierarchy of symmetric structures", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 27(12), pp. 1551{ 1573 (1991). 24. Mahdavi, S.H., Razak, H.A., Shojaee, S., and Mahdavi, M.S. A comparative study on application of Chebyshev and spline methods for geometrically nonlinear analysis of truss structures", International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 101-102, pp. 241{251 (2015). 25. Khoei, A.R. and Moslemi, H. 3D modeling of damage growth and crack initiation using adaptive _nite element technique", Scientia Iranica, 17(5), pp. 372{386 (2010). 26. Sabermahany, H., Vafai, A., and Mo_d, M. Dynamic response of concrete funicular shells with rectangular base under impulse loads", Scientia Iranica (2018). 27. Plaut, R.H. and Virgin, L.N. Snap-through under unilateral displacement control with constant velocity", International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 94, pp. 292{299 (2017). 28. Ma, H., Fan, F., Wen, P., Zhang, H., and Shen, S. Experimental and numerical studies on a single-layer cylindrical reticulated shell with semi-rigid joints", Thin-Walled Structures, 86, pp. 1{9 (2015). 29. Reyhan, K., _Ipeko_glu, B., and Boke, H. Construction techniques of domes in some Ottoman baths", Journal of Cultural Heritage, 14(3), Supplement, pp. e35{e40 (2013). 30. Crivelli, L.A., A Total-Lagrangian Beam Element for Analysis of Nonlinear Space Structures, University of Colorado at Boulder, Colorado (1991). 31. 32. Soetens, F. Adhesive joints in aluminium alloy structures", International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 10(3), pp. 146{152 (1990). 33. Kani, I.M. Theoretical and experimental investigation of collapse of shallow reticulated domes, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (1986).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigating the behavior factor of coupled concrete shear walls with steel coupling beam
The behavior factor is used to reduce the elastic spectrum ordinate or the forces obtained from a linear analysis in order to take into account the non-linear structural properties. The more accurate this parameter is estimated, the more exact responses of the structures will be obtained. Recently, coupled walls with steel coupling beams are extensively utilized as an efficient system against lateral forces in high-rise buildings. But, there is not enough information about the behavior of these walls during earthquake, and design codes have not suggested any behavior factor for this structural system. Consequently, this paper is devoted to find the behavior factor of this structural system. To achieve this goal, six-, twelve- and twenty-story buildings are assessed. Except for the number of stories, all characteristicsof these buildings are completely similar. Buidlings’ height, the length of the coupling beams and the coupling ratio are key parameters which influence the behavior factor of the aforesaid structural system. In this work, the effect of these parameters on this factor are studied.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21086_0b5dadb1c9058513b2a73a70578d4663.pdf
2020-10-01
2189
2197
10.24200/sci.2018.21086
Hybrid coupled shear walls system
Steel coupling beam
Behavior factor
Ductiltity factor
Overstrength factor
Coupling ratio
seismic response
Inelastic behavior
Numerical simulations
M. H.
Daneshvar
1
Department of Civil Engineering, ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Karamodin
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of distribution patterns of DSM columns on the efficiency of liquefaction mitigation
Liquefaction during earthquakes can result in severe damage to structures, primarily from excess pore water pressure generation and subsoil softening. Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) is a common method of soil improvement and is also used to decrease shear stress in liquefiable soils to control liquefaction. The current study evaluated the effect of Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) columns and implementation of different column patterns on controlling liquefaction and decreasing settlement of shallow foundations. A series of shaking table physical modelling tests were conducted for three different distribution patterns of Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) columns (i.e.: square, triangular and single) with a treatment area ratio of 30%. The treatment was applied to a liquefiable soil under a shallow model foundation. The results showed that the excess pore water pressure decreased 20% to 50% in comparison with the unimproved soil, depending on the Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) column pattern used. For improved soil, the shallow foundation settlement was about 10% that of the unimproved soil in the best case. The increase in soil shear stiffness after use of the Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) columns was compared with the results of existing practical relations to increase soil shear strength.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21647_1ae04c0f0a6fdd7b7b606629107decca.pdf
2020-10-01
2198
2208
10.24200/sci.2019.21647
Liquefaction mitigation
Deep soil mixing
Shaking table
Shear reinforcement
H.
DehqanKhalili
1
School of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
A.
Ghalandarzadeh
amhcopwh@scientiaunknown.non
2
School of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Moradi
mhhxzybp@scientiaunknown.non
3
School of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
R.
Karimzadeh
4
School of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
1. Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M Analysis of soil liquefaction: Niigata earthquake", Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 93(3), pp. 83{ 108 (1967) 2. Youd, T.L. Liquefaction-induced damage to bridges", Report U.S Transportation Research Record, 1411, pp. 35{41 (1993). 3. Elgamal, A.W., Zeghal, M., and Parra, E. Liquefaction of reclaimed island in Kobe, Japan", Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122(1), pp. 39{49 (1996). 4. National Research Council (US). Committee on Earthquake Engineering. Liquefaction of soils during earthquakes", 1, pp. 4{6 (1985). 5. Nguyen, T.V., Rayamajhi, D., Boulanger, R.W., Ashford, S.A., Lu, J., Elgamal, A., and Shao, L. Design of DSM grids for liquefaction remediation", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 139(11) pp. 1923{1933 (2013). 6. Namikawa, T., Koseki, J., and Suzuki, Y. Finite element analysis of lattice-shaped ground improvement by cement mixing for liquefaction mitigation", Soils and Found, 47(3), pp. 559{576 (2007). 7. Derakhshani, A., Takahashi, N., Bahmanpour, A. Yamada, S., and Towhata, I. Experimental study on e_ects of underground columnar improvement on seismic behavior of quay wall subjected to liquefaction", Proc. of 2011Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical Conference, Toronto, Canada (2011). 8. O'Rourke, T.D. and Goh, S.H. Reduction of liquefaction hazards by deep soil mixing", NCEER/INCEDE Workshop, MCEER, Univ. at Bu_alo, State Univ. of New York, Bu_alo, NY (1997). 9. Elgamal, A., Lu, J., and Forcellini, D. Mitigation of liquefaction-induced lateral deformation in a sloping stratum: Three-dimensional numerical simulation", J. Geotech. Geoenvir. Eng., ASCE, 135(11), pp. 1672{ 1682 (2009). 10. Asgari, A., Oliaei, M., and Bagheri, M. Numerical simulation of improvement of a lique_able soil layer using stone column and pile-pinning techniques", Soil Dyn. Earthquake. Eng., 51, pp. 77{ 96 (2013). 11. Green, R.A., Olgun, C.G, and Wissmann, K.J. Shear stress redistribution as a mechanism to mitigate the risk of liquefaction", In Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV, pp. 1{10 (2008). 12. Olgun, C.G. and Martin, J.R. Numerical modeling of the seismic response of Columnar reinforced ground", In Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV, pp. 1{11 (2008). 13. Rayamajhi, D., Nguyen, T.V., Ashford, S.A., Boulanger, R.W., Lu, J., Elgamal, A., and Shao, L. Numerical study of shear stress distribution for discrete columns in lique_able soils", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng, 140(3), 04013034{1 (2013). 14. Baez, J.I. A design model for the reduction of soil liquefaction by vibro-stone columns", PhD Thesis, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (1995). 15. Durguno_glu, H.T. Utilization of high modulus columns in foundation engineering under seismic loadings", US 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, CA., USA (2006). 16. Gueguin, M., Buhan, P., and Hassen G. A homogenization approach for evaluating the longitudinal shear sti_ness of reinforced soils: column versus cross trench con_guration", Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech, 37, pp. 3150{3172 (2013). 17. Rayamajhi, D., Nguyen, T.V., Ashford, S.A., Boulanger, R.W., Lu, J., Elgamal, A., and Shao, L. Numerical study of shear stress distribution for discrete columns in lique_able soils", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 140(3), 04013034{1 (2013). 18. Rayamajhi, D. Shear reinforcement e_ects of discrete columns in lique_able soils displacements", PhD Thesis, Oregon: Oregon State University (2014). 19. Iai, S. and Sugano, T. Soil{structure interaction studies through shaking-table tests", Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Lisbon, pp. 927{940 (1999). 2208 H. Dehghan Khalili et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2198{2208 20. Sadrekarimi, A. and Ghalandarzadeh, A. Evaluation of gravel drains and compacted sand piles in mitigating liquefaction", Proceedings of the ICE{Ground Improvement, 9(3) pp. 91{104 (2005). 21. Shibata, T., Oka, F., and Ozawa, Y. Characteristics of ground deformation due to liquefaction", Soils and Foundations, 36, pp. 65{79 (1996). 22. Yoshimi, Y. and Kuwabara, F. E_ects of subsurface liquefaction on the strength of surface soil", Soils and Foundations, 13(2), pp. 67{81 (1973). 23. Whitman, R.V. and Lambe, P.C. Earthquake like shaking of a structure founded on saturated sand", Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Centrifuge Modelling, Paris, pp. 529{538 (1998). 24. Adalier, K., Elgamal, A.W., and Martin, G.R. Foundation liquefaction countermeasures for earth embankments", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 124(6), pp. 500{517 (1998). 25. Adalier, K., Elgamal, A.W., Meneses, J., and Baez, J.I. Stone columns as liquefaction countermeasure in non-plastic silty soils", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 23(7), pp. 571{584 (2003). 26. Koga, Y. and Matsuo, O. Shaking table tests of embankments resting on lique_able sandy ground", Soils and Foundations Journal, 30(4), pp. 162{174 (1990). 27. Brandenberg, S.J., Wilson, D.W., and Rashid, M.M. Weighted residual numerical di_erentiation algorithm applied to experimental bending moment data", J. of Geotech. and Geoenviron. Eng., 136(6), pp. 854{863 (2009). 28. Kamai, R. and Boulanger, R.W. Characterizing localization processes during liquefaction using inverse analyses of instrumentation arrays", Meso-Scale Shear Physics in Earthquake and Landslide Mechanics, I. Vardoulakis, pp. 219{238 (2010).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Utilizing new spherical Hankel shape functions to reformulate the deflection, free vibration, and buckling analysis of Mindlin plates based on finite element method
In this study, a new class of shape functions, namely spherical Hankel shape functions, are derived and applied to reformulate the deflection, free vibration, and buckling of Mindlin plates based on finite element method (FEM). In this way, adding polynomial terms to the functional expansion, in which just spherical Hankel radial basis functions (RBFs) are used, leads to obtaining spherical Hankel shape functions. Accordingly, the employment of polynomial and spherical Bessel function fields together results in achieving more robustness and effectiveness. Spherical Hankel shape functions benefit from some useful properties, including infinite piecewise continuity, partition of unity, and Kronecker delta property. In the end, the accuracy of the proposed formulation is investigated through several numerical examples for which the same degrees of freedom are selected in both the presented formulation and the classical finite element method. Finally, it can be concluded that a higher accuracy is reachable by utilizing spherical Hankel shape functions in comparison with the Lagrangian FEM.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21087_e0486134d53afffd48f4305975e8acda.pdf
2020-10-01
2209
2229
10.24200/sci.2018.5113.1103
Spherical Hankel shape functions
Radial basis functions
Mindlin plate theory
Finite Element Method
free vibration
buckling
M.
Mohammadi Nia
mohammadi.nia.1991@gmail.com
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, P.O. Box 76169{133, Iran.
AUTHOR
S.
Shojaee
saeed.shojaee@uk.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, P.O. Box 76169{133, Iran.
AUTHOR
S.
Hamzehei-Javaran
s.hamzeheijavaran@uk.ac.ir
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, P.O. Box 76169{133, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
1. Timoshenko, S. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S. Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-hill (1959). 2. Hughes, T.J. and Tezduyar, T. Finite elements based upon Mindlin plate theory with particular reference to the four-node bilinear isoparametric element", Journal of Applied Mechanics, 48(3) pp. 587{596 (1981). 3. Tanaka, M. and Herein, A. A boundary element method applied to the elastic bending problem of sti_ened plates", WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation, 19, pp. 203{212 (1970). 4. Qian, L., Batra, R., and Chen, L. Static and dynamic deformations of thick functionally graded elastic plates by using higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory and meshless local Petrov- Galerkin method", Composites Part B: Engineering, 35(6), pp. 685{697 (2004). 5. Chu, F., Wang, L., Zhong, Z., and He, J. Hermite radial basis collocation method for vibration of functionally graded plates with in-plane material inhomogeneity", Computers & Structures, 142, pp. 79{89 (2014). 6. Chu, F., He, J., Wang, L., and Zhong, Z. Buckling analysis of functionally graded thin plate with in-plane material inhomogeneity", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 65, pp. 112{125 (2016). 7. Long, S. and Atluri, S. A meshless local Petrov- Galerkin method for solving the bending problem of a thin plate", Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, 3(1), pp. 53{64 (2002). 8. Buhmann, M.D., Radial Basis Functions: Theory and Implementations. Vol. 12. Cambridge University Press (2003). 9. Hamzehei Javaran, S. and Khaji, N. Dynamic analysis of plane elasticity with new complex Fourier radial basis functions in the dual reciprocity boundary element method", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 38(14), pp. 3641{3651 (2014). 10. Hamzeh Javaran, S., Khaji, N., and Moharrami, H. A dual reciprocity BEM approach using new Fourier radial basis functions applied to 2D elastodynamic transient analysis", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 35(1), pp. 85{95 (2011). 11. Khaji, N. and Hamzehei Javaran, S. New complex Fourier shape functions for the analysis of twodimensional potential problems using boundary element method", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 37(2), pp. 260{272 (2013). 12. Hamzeh Javaran, S., Khaji, N., and Noorzad, A. First kind Bessel function (J-Bessel) as radial basis function for plane dynamic analysis using dual reciprocity boundary element method", Acta Mechanica, 218(3{ 4), pp. 247{258 (2011). 13. Rashed, Y.F. Transient dynamic boundary element analysis using Gaussian-based mass matrix", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 26(3), pp. 265{279 (2002). 14. Agnantiaris, J., Polyzos, D., and Beskos, D. Some studies on dual reciprocity BEM for elastodynamic analysis", Computational Mechanics, 17(4), pp. 270{ 277 (1996). 15. Chen, C. The method of fundamental solutions for non-linear thermal explosions", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 11(8), pp. 675{681 (1995). 16. Rashed, Y.F. BEM for dynamic analysis using compact supported radial basis functions", Computers & Structures, 80(16), pp. 1351{1367 (2002). 17. Samaan, M.F., Rashed, Y.F., and Ahmed, M.A. The dual reciprocity method applied to free vibrations of 2D structures using compact supported radial basis functions", Computational Mechanics, 41(1), pp. 85{ 105 (2007). 18. Wang, L. Radial basis functions methods for boundary value problems: Performance comparison", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 84, pp. 191{205 (2017). 19. Samaan, M.F. and Rashed, Y.F. Free vibration multiquadric boundary elements applied to plane elasticity", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33(5), pp. 2421{2432 (2009). 20. Hamzehei Javaran, S. and Khaji, N. Inverse multiquadric (IMQ) function as radial basis function for plane dynamic analysis using dual reciprocity boundary element method", 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisboa, Portugal (2012). 21. Hamzehei Javaran, S. and Shojaee, S. The solution of elasto static and dynamic problems using the boundary element method based on spherical Hankel element framework", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 112(13), pp. 2067{2086 (2017). 22. Farmani, S., Ghaeini-Hessaroeyeh, M., and Hamzehei Javaran, S. The improvement of numerical modeling in the solution of incompressible viscous ow problems using _nite element method based on spherical Hankel shape functions", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 87(2), pp. 70{89 (2018). 23. Hamzehei-Javaran, S. and Shojaee, S. Improvement of numerical modeling in the solution of static M. Mohammadi Nia et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2209{2229 2229 and transient dynamic problems using _nite element method based on spherical Hankel shape functions", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 115(10), pp. 1241{1265 (2018). DOI: 10.1002/nme.5842) 24. Wang, J. and Liu, G. On the optimal shape parameters of radial basis functions used for 2-D meshless methods", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 191(23), pp. 2611{2630 (2002). 25. Bhatti, M.A., Advanced Topics in Finite Element Analysis of Structures: with Mathematica and MATLAB Computations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2006). 26. Ferreira, A.J., MATLAB Codes for Finite Element Analysis: Solids and Structures, 157, Springer Science & Business Media (2008). 27. Liew, K., Xiang, Y., and Kitipornchai, S. Transverse vibration of thick rectangular plates-I. Comprehensive sets of boundary conditions", Computers & Structures, 49(1), pp. 1{29 (1993). 28. Hinton, E., Numerical Methods and Software for Dynamic Analysis of Plates and Shells, Swansea: Pineridge Press (1988). 29. Liew, K., Xiang, Y., Kitipornchai, S., et al. Vibration of thick skew plates based on Mindlin shear deformation plate theory", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 168(1), pp. 39{69 (1993). 30. Kitipornchai, S., Xiang, Y., Liew, K., et al. A global approach for vibration of thick trapezoidal plates", Computers & Structures, 53(1), pp. 83{92 (1994). 31. Hosseini-Hashemi, S., Khorshidi, K., and Amabili, M. Exact solution for linear buckling of rectangular Mindlin plates", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 315(1), pp. 318{342 (2008).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effects of seismic pounding between adjacent structures considering structure-soil-structure interaction
Structures located beside each other interact under dynamic loads both through the underlying soil and possibly by impact. In this paper, this dynamic cross-interaction phenomenon is studied parametrically. While simultaneous modeling of different adjacent buildings would be possible from the beginning, by resorting to simple physical models the cases susceptible to impact under harmonic loads are identified first with much less effort. Then comprehensive models containing two nonlinear multistory shear buildings connected at the base with suitable springs & dampers and impacting at story levels are developed. The system is analyzed under selected ground motions. It is shown that impact and cross-interaction have an increasing effect on lateral displacements for stiff and heavy structures and a decreasing effect for other cases. Also, the shear forces of stories increase and decrease in upper and lower stories, respectively, as a result of the mentioned mutual effect. Finally, the study shows that under a sample ground motion, simultaneous impact and cross-interaction increase the ductility demands of stories for taller structures while it decreases the ductility demand of shorter buildings.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21408_9e9b47ec7535fb64a46e95e9a015c9c8.pdf
2020-10-01
2230
2246
10.24200/sci.2019.5405.1255
structure-soil-structure interaction
tall building
pounding
ground motion
ductility demand
M.
Kermani
kermani@cv.iut.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.M.
Saadatpour
saadatpoor@cc.iut.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, P.O. Box 8415683111, Iran.
AUTHOR
F.
Behnamfar
farhad@cc.iut.ac.ir
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, P.O. Box 8415683111, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Ghandil
mehdi@eng.ui.ac.ir
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, P.O. Box 8415683111, Iran.
AUTHOR
. Naeim, F., The Seismic Design Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1989). 2. Anagnostopoulos, S.A. Pounding of buildings in series during earthquakes", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 16(3), pp. 443{456 (1988). 3. Dimitrakopoulos, E., Makris, N., and Kappos, A.J. Dimensional analysis of the earthquake-induced pounding between adjacent structures", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 38(7), pp. 867{ 886 (2009). 4. Polycarpou, P.C. and Komodromos, P. Earthquakeinduced poundings of a seismically isolated building with adjacent structures", Engineering Structures, 32(7), pp. 1937{1951 (2010). 5. Polycarpou, P.C. and Komodromos, P. On poundings of a seismically isolated building with adjacent structures during strong earthquakes", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 39(8), pp. 933{ 940 (2010). 6. Cole, G.L., Dhakal, R.P., Carr, A.J., and Bull, D.K. Building pounding state of the art: identifying structures vulnerable to pounding damage", In NZSEE 2010-New Zealand Society Earthquake Engineering Annual Conference, paper P11, Wellington, New Zealand (2010). 7. Jankowski, R. Non-linear FEM analysis of poundinginvolved response of buildings under non-uniform earthquake excitation", Engineering Structures, 37, pp. 99{105 (2012). 8. Efraimiadou, S., Hatzigeorgiou, G.D., and Beskos, D.E. Structural pounding between adjacent buildings: the e_ects of di_erent structures con_gurations and multiple earthquakes", In Proceedings 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 24{28, Lisbon, Portugal (2012). 9. Mahmoud, S., Abd-Elhamed, A., and Jankowski, R. Earthquake-induced pounding between equal height multi-storey buildings considering soil-structure interaction", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 11, pp. 1021{1048 (2013). 10. Polycarpou, P.C., Komodromos, P., and Polycarpou, A.C. A nonlinear impact model for simulating the use of rubber shock absorbers for mitigating the e_ects of structural pounding during earthquakes", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 42, pp. 81{100 (2013). 11. Mulliken, J.S. and Karabalis, D.L Discrete model for dynamic through-the-soil coupling of 3-D foundations and structures", Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 27, pp. 687{710 (1998). 12. Schmid, G. and Chouw, N. Soil-structure interaction e_ects on structural pounding", 10th Word Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain (1992). 13. Chouw, N. Inuence of soil-structure interaction on pounding response of adjacent buildings due to nearsource earthquakes", Journal of Applied Mechanics, 5, pp. 543{553 (2002). 14. Chouw, N. and Hao, H. Reduction of pounding responses of bridges girders with soil-structure interaction e_ects to spatial near-source ground motions", 13th Word Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada (2004). 15. Chouw, N. and Hao, H. Study of SSI and non-uniform ground motion e_ect on pounding between bridge girders", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25, pp. 717{728 (2005). 16. Li, B., Chan, K., Chouw, N., and Butterworth, J.W. Seismic response of two-span scale bridge model due to non-uniform ground excitation and varying subsoil conditions", NZSEE Conference, Wellington City, New Zealand (2010). 17. Li, B., Jamil, M., Chouw, N., and Butterworth, J.W. Model bridge shake-table tests with soil-structure interaction, non-uniform ground motion and pounding", M. Kermani et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2230{2246 2245 NZSEE Conference, Wellington City, New Zealand (2010). 18. Behrens, E.M. and Chouw, N. Nonlinear SSI e_ect on adjacent bridge structures with pounding", Proceedings 9th Paci_c Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand (2011). 19. Bi, K., Hao, H., and Chouw, N. Dynamic SSI e_ect on the required separation distances of bridge structures to avoid seismic pounding", 8th International Conference Earthquake Resisting Engineering Structures, Chianciano Terme, Italy (2011). 20. Naserkhaki, S., Abdul Aziz, F.N.A., and Pourmohammad, H. Earthquake induced Pounding between adjacent buildings considering soil-structure interaction", Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 11(3), pp. 343{358 (2012). 21. Brach, R.M., Mechanical Impact Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York (1977). 22. Timoshenko, S. and Goodier, J.N., Theory of Elasticity, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill. Inc., New York (1951). 23. Hunt, K.H. and Crossley, F.R.E. Coe_cient of restitution interpreted as damping in vibroimpact", Journal of Applied Mechanics, 97, pp. 440{445 (1975). 24. Wolf, J.P., Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey (1985). 25. Madani, B. Study of pounding between adjacent buildings considering rotational component of earthquake movement and soil-structure interaction", MSc Thesis, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran (2015). 26. Madani, B., Behnamfar, F., and Tajmir Riahi, H. Dynamic response of structures subjected to pounding and structure-soil-structure interaction", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 78, pp. 46{60 (2015). 27. Kermani, M. Structural pounding considering soil exibility", MSc Thesis, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran (2001). 28. Earthquake Resistant Design of Buildings Committee, Seismic resistant design of buildings-code of practice", Institute of Standards and Industrial Research (2005). 29. ANSYS 5.6 The ANSYS elements reference", ANSYS, Inc., Pennsylvania (2000). 30. Komodromos, P. Simulation of the earthquakeinduced pounding of seismically isolated buildings", Computers Structures, 86, pp. 618{626 (2008). 31. Tande, S.N. and Pol, C.B. Seismic response of pounding and impact susceptible buildings", 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Ohrid, Macedonia (2010). 32. Pant, D.R., Wijeyewickrema, A.C., and Ohmachi, T. Seismic pounding between reinforced concrete buildings: A study using two recently proposed contact element models", 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Ohrid, Macedonia (2010). 33. Aydin, E., Ozturk, B., and Yesil, L. Application of viscous dampers for prevention of pounding e_ect in adjacent buildings", 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Ohrid, Macedonia (2010).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Evaluation of UV aging behaviors of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) modified asphalt and its asphalt mixture
Effects of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) on the ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of asphalt and asphalt mixture were studied. The morphologies of these binders were characterized by FTIR spectra and TG analysis, then the influence of PPA on asphalt and its mixture before and after UV aging were investigated by the physical properties and pavement performances. Results show that the mechanisms of PPA modified asphalt are physical and chemical reactions; both UV aging and PPA additive could prompted the polycondensation of light components in asphalt. Compared with control samples, the introduction of PPA enhances the asphalt properties and intensifies the asphalt mixture performances. Furthermore, the asphalt performance aging variations (penetration aging index, softening point increment, ductility aging index, G*/sinδ aging index) decrease signiﬁcantly due to the introduction of PPA. This manifests that the effects of UV aging on the behaviors of asphalt and asphalt mixture are restricted by the addition of PPA through inhibiting the increase of carbonyl in the oxidation process.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21188_a606e4eb4e4eab06c0028e3b653bfc36.pdf
2020-10-01
2247
2257
10.24200/sci.2018.50195.1566
Asphalt
asphalt mixture
polyphosphoric acid
ultraviolet aging
FTIR
Thermal properties
Shengjie
Liu
lsjwork@126.com
1
College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Yinshan
Xu
xys0613@126.com
2
Zhejiang Scientific Research Institute of Transport, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310006, China.
AUTHOR
Shengbo
Zhou
zhoushengbo2005@163.com
3
Guangxi Transportation Research Institute, Nanning, Guangxi, 530007, China.
AUTHOR
1. Yu, J.Y., Feng, P.C., Zhang, H.L., et al. E_ect of organo-montmorillonite on aging properties of asphalt", Construction & Building Materials, 23(7), pp. 2636{2640 (2009). 2. Li, Y., Moraes, R., Lyngdal, E., et al. E_ect of polymer and oil modi_cation on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binders", Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2574, pp. 28{37 (2016). 3. Liu, G., Nielsen, E., Komacka, J., et al. Rheological and chemical evaluation on the ageing properties of SBS polymer modi_ed bitumen: From the laboratory to the _eld", Construction & Building Materials, 51, pp. 244{248 (2014). 4. Menapace, I. and Masad, E. Evolution of the microstructure of warm mix asphalt binders with aging in an accelerated weathering tester", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(10), 04017162 (2017). 5. Catalgol, B., Ziaja, I., Breusing, N., et al. The proteasome is an integral part of solar ultraviolet a radiation-induced gene expression", Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284(44), pp. 30076{30086 (2009). 6. Durrieu, F., Farcas, F., and Mouillet, V. The in- uence of UV aging of a Styrene/Butadiene/Styrene modi_ed bitumen: Comparison between laboratory and on site aging", Fuel, 86(s10-11), pp. 1446{1451 (2007). 7. Zhang, F., Yu, J.Y., and Han, J. E_ects of thermal oxidative ageing on dynamic viscosity, TG/DTG, DTA and FTIR of SBS- and SBS/sulfur-modi_ed asphalts", Construction & Building Materials, 25(1), pp. 129{37 (2011). 8. Naskar, M., Reddy, K.S., Chaki, T.K., Divya, M.K., and Deshpande, A.P. E_ect of ageing on di_erent modi_ed bituminous binders: comparison between RTFOT and radiation ageing", Mater Struct, 46, pp. 1227{1241(2013). 9. Zhang, F. and Yu, J. The research for highperformance SBR compound modi_ed asphalt", Construction & Building Materials, 24(3) pp. 410{418 (2010). 10. Singh, D., Ashish, P.K., Kataware, A., et al. Evaluating performance of PPA-and-Elvaloy-modi_ed binder containing WMA additives and lime using MSCR and LAS tests", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(8), 04017064 (2017). 11. Domingos, M.D.I. and Faxina, A.L. Rheological behaviour of bitumens modi_ed with PE and PPA at di_erent MSCR creep-recovery times", International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 16(9), pp. 1{13 (2015). 12. Jafari, M., Babazadeh, A., and Rahi, M. Evaluating rutting and fatigue characteristics of binder containing SBS and PPA and their relationship with the mixture sti_ness parameter", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 29(9), 04017143 (2017). 13. Alam, S. and Hossain, Z. Changes in fractional compositions of PPA and SBS modi_ed asphalt binders", Construction & Building Materials, 152, pp. 386{393 (2017). 14. Baldino, N., Gabriele, D., Rossi, C.O., et al. Low temperature rheology of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) added bitumen", Construction & Building Materials, 36, pp. 592{596 (2012). 15. Huang, S., Turner, T.F., Miknis, M.F.P., et al. Longterm aging characteristics of polyphosphoric acidmodi _ed asphalts", Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2051, pp. 1{7 (2008). 16. Huang, S., Miknis, F.P., Schuster, W.C., et al. Rheological and chemical properties of hydrated lime and polyphosphoric acid-modi_ed asphalts with long-term aging", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 23(5), pp. 628{637 (2011). 17. Hu, B.,Wang, Y.S., and Liu, G.R. The characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in arid and semi-arid regions of S. Liu et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2247{2257 2257 China", Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 67(2{3), pp. 141{155 (2010). 18. Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China, Technical Speci_cation for Construction of Highway Asphalt Pavement, Beijing (2004). 19. Lamontagne, J., Dumas, P., Mouillet, V., et al. Comparison by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of di_erent ageing techniques: application to road bitumens", Fuel, 80(4), pp. 483{488 (2001). 20. Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China, Standard Test Methods of Bitumen and Bituminous Mixtures for Highway Engineering, Beijing (2011).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Suitability of brick kiln waste as a stabilizer for clayey soils
Due to increased use of brick masonry for construction of buildings in Pakistan, huge quantities of Brick Kiln Waste (BKW) are generated which not only create disposal problems but are a hazard to the environment. In order to get rid of such problems, it is necessary to investigate suitability of the BKW as a stabilizer to the clayey soils. For this purpose, an experimental program was carried out to stabilize clayey soil with the BKW ranging from 5 to 40%. Basic geotechnical tests were performed on the clayey soil blended with the BKW. The results showed that the clayey soil became coarser and more suitable as a subgrade material with addition of the BKW. There was negligible reduction in dry density up to 7% when the BKW added was 40%. As expected, the cohesion and friction angle of the blended soils respectively decreased and increased with inclusion of the BKW. As compared to the clayey soil, the ultimate bearing capacity of the blended soil having 40% of the BKW increased by 21%. This study shows that clayey soils stabilized with the BKW could be used as a partial fill material for highway embankments and foundations of buildings.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21071_769dc162ba28bd95be432c57dc3f5fcb.pdf
2020-10-01
2258
2263
10.24200/sci.2018.50198.1569
Clayey soil
Brick kiln waste
Stabilizer
Bearing capacity
Dry density
Cohesion
Friction angle
A.
Saand
abdullah.saand@gmail.com
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan
AUTHOR
M.A.
Zardari
muhammad.auchar@quest.edu.pk
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.A.
Keerio
mantharali99@quest.edu.pk
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Larkano, Sindh, Pakistan.
AUTHOR
S.H.
Shaikh
sabir.hussain@halcrowpk.com
4
Architecture and Engineering Services for Sindh Basic Education Program-II, Halcrow Pakistan, Pvt. Ltd, House No. C-172, Block C, Government Employees Cooperative Housing Society, Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan
AUTHOR
D.K.
Bangwar
daddan@quest.edu.pk
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan
AUTHOR
1. Saeed, A. Pakistan third largest brick- producing country in South Asia", Business Recorder (2017). https://fp.brecorder.com/2017/05/20170504175631. 2. Mortaheb, M.M. and Mahpour, A. Integrated construction waste management, a holistic approach", Sci. Iran., 23(5), pp. 2044{2056 (2016). 3. Shah, A., Jan, I.U., Khan, R., and Qazi, E.U. Exploring the opportunities for reuse of municipal Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes in concrete", Sci. Iran., 21(4), pp. 1317{1324 (2014). 4. Ehsani, M., Shariatmadaria, N., and Mirhosseini, S.M. Experimental study on behavior of soil-waste tire mixtures", Sci. Iran., 24(1), pp. 65{71 (2017). 5. James, J., Lakshmi, S.V. and Pandian, P.K. A preliminary investigation on the geotechnical properties of blended solid wastes as synthetic _ll material", Int. J. Techn., 8(3), pp. 466{476 (2017). 6. Zhang, Y., Soleimanbeigi, A., Likos, W.J., and Edil, T.B. Geotechnical and leaching properties of municipal solid waste incineration y ash for use as embankment _ll material", Transp. Res. Rec: J. Transp. Res. Bd., 2579, pp. 70{78 (2016). 7. James, J. and Pandian, P.K. Industrial wastes as auxiliary additives to cement/lime stabilization of soils", Adv. Civ. Eng., 2016, pp. 1{17 (2016). 8. Sabat, A.K. and Pati, S. A review of literature on stabilization of expansive soil using solid wastes", Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., 19(U), pp. 6251{6267 (2014). 9. Slack, R.J., Gronow, J.R., and Voulvoulis, N. Household hazardous waste in municipal land_lls: contaminants in leachate", Sci. Total. Environ., 337(1), pp. 119{137 (2005). 10. Idris, A., Inanc, B., and Hassan, M.N. Overview of waste disposal and land_lls/dumps in Asian countries", J. Mater. Cycles. Waste., 6(2), pp. 104{110 (2004). 11. Li, H., Zheng, X., Sheng, Y., and Ke, S. Di_erential settlements of embankment treated by cement yash gravel pile and sheet pile in freeway extension constructions", Int. J. Geomech., 17(11), 04017092, pp. 1{8 (2017). 12. Cui, W., Zheng, X., and Zhang, Q.Q. Evaluation of bearing capacity of y-ash highway subgrade based on model test", J. Test. Eval., 46(3), pp. 943{955 (2018). 13. Zhang, C., Jiang, G., Liu, X., and Wang, Z. Deformation performance of cement-y ash-gravel pilesupported embankments over silty clay of medium compressibility: a case study", Arab. J. Geosci., 8(7), pp. 4495{4507 (2015). 14. Sharma, N.K., Swain, S.K., and Sahoo, U.C. Stabilization of a clayey soil with y ash and lime: a micro level investigation", Geotech. Geol. Eng., 30(5), pp. 1197{1205 (2012). 15. Eberemu, A.O. Consolidation properties of compacted lateritic soil treated with rice husk ash", Geomat., 1, pp. 70{78 (2011). 16. Kumar, A. and Gupta, D. Behavior of cementstabilized _ber-reinforced pond ash, rice husk ash-soil mixtures", Geotext. Geomembranes., 44(3), pp. 466{ 474 (2016). 17. Kumar, B.S. and Preethi, T.V. Behavior of clayey soil stabilized with rice husk ash & lime", Int. J. Eng. Tr. Tech., 11(1), pp. 44{48 (2014). 18. Chen, J.A. and Idusuyi, F.O. E_ect ofWaste Ceramic Dust (WCD) on index and engineering properties of shrink-swell soils", Int. J. Eng. Mod. Tech., 1(8), pp. 52{61 (2015). 19. Ali, R., Khan, H., and Shah, A.A. Expansive soil stabilization using marble dust and bagasse ash", Int. A. Saand et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2258{2263 2263 J. Sci. Res., 3(6), pp. 2812{2816 (2014). 20. Bhavsar, S.N. and Patel, A.J. Analysis of swelling & shrinkage properties of expansive soil using brick dust as a stabilizer", Int. J. Emerg. Tech. Adv. Eng., 4(12), pp. 303{308 (2014). 21. ASTM D422-63 Standard test method for particlesize analysis of soils", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2007). 22. ASTM D4318-10 Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2010). 23. AASHTO M 145:1991 (R2008) Speci_cation for classi _cation of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes", American Association of State Highway and Transportation O_cials (2008). 24. ASTM D1557-12 Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modi_ed e_ort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2012). 25. ASTM D3080/D3080M-11 Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2011). 26. Prakash, K. and Sridharan, A. Free swell ratio and clay mineralogy of _ne-grained soils", Geotech. Test. J., 27(2), pp. 220{225 (2004). 27. Garber, N.J. and Hoel, L.A., Tra_c and Highway Engineering, 5th Edn, Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA (2015). 28. Carter, M. and Bentley, S.P., Soil Properties and their Correlations, 2nd Edn., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom (2016). 29. Bowels, J.E., Foundation Analysis and Design, 5th Edn., The McGraw Hill companies, Inc., Singapore (2001). 30. ICC International residential code for one and twofamily dwellings", International Code Council (2018).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic evaluation of special steel moment frames subjected to near-field earthquakes with forward directivity by considering soil-structure interaction effects
While the bottom soil of the foundation is supposed to be rigid and the flexibility effect is ignored, the seismic response of the structure is affected by dynamic properties of the structure, and the soil flexibility does not have any effect on the response of the structure. Hence, considering the results obtained by analyses based on the fixed base buildings can lead to the unsafe design of the structure. On the other hand, the proximity of the site to the earthquake production resource causes the most earthquake energy to be reached to the structure as a long-period pulse. Therefore, near-field earthquakes produce many seismic needs so that force the structure to dissipate this input energy with relatively large displacements. Accordingly, the primary objective of the present paper is the determination of the seismic response of the 3, 5 and 8-story steel buildings with special moment frame system and by considering the soil-structure interaction and panel zone modeling as well. The selected records of the near and far-field earthquakes in nonlinear time history analysis have been used, and the response of the structure was compared in both states.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21146_41a2accb9d536a3a1df101edb348914f.pdf
2020-10-01
2264
2282
10.24200/sci.2018.50241.1594
Soil-structure interaction
near-field
forward directivity
Special moment frame
seismic response
S.
Shahbazi
shahrokh.shahbazi25@yahoo.com
1
TAAT Investment Group, Tehran, 18717-13553, Iran
AUTHOR
M.
Khatibinia
m.khatibinia@birjand.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
AUTHOR
I.
Mansouri
mansouri@birjandut.ac.ir
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, P.O. Box 97175-569, Iran.
AUTHOR
J.W.
Hu
jongp24@incheon.ac.kr
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, South Korea.; Incheon Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840, South Korea.
LEAD_AUTHOR
1. Shahbazi, S., Mansouri, I., Hu, J.W., and Karami, A. E_ect of soil classi_cation on seismic behavior of SMFs considering soil-structure interaction and near- _eld earthquakes", Shock and Vibration, 2018, pp. 1{ 17 (2018). 2. Farzampour, A. and Kamali Asl, A. On seismic hazard analysis of the two vulnerable regions in Iran: deterministic and probabilistic approaches", Proc. Conference, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE), Auckland, New Zealand (2014). 3. Farzampour, A. and Kamali-Asl, A. Seismic hazard assessment for two cities in Eastern Iran", Earthquake and Structures, 8(3), pp. 681{697 (2015). 4. Eser, M., Aydemir, C., and Ekiz, I. E_ects of soil structure interaction on strength reduction factors", Proc., Procedia Engineering, pp. 1696{1704 (2011). 5. Shakib, H. and Atefatdoost, G.R. E_ect of soilstructure interaction on torsional response of asymmetric wall type systems", Proc., Procedia Engineering, pp. 1729{1736 (2011). 6. Rodriguez, M.E. and Montes, R. Seismic response and damage analysis of buildings supported on exible soils", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 29(5), pp. 647{665 (2000). 7. Behnamfar, F., Mirhosseini, S.M., and Alibabaei, H. Seismic behavior of structures considering uplift and soil-structure interaction", Advances in Structural Engineering, 20(11), pp. 1712{1726 (2017). 8. Shrestha, B., Hao, H., and Bi, K. Seismic response analysis of multiple-frame bridges with unseating restrainers considering ground motion spatial variation and SSI", Advances in Structural Engineering, 18(6), pp. 873{891 (2015). 9. Zheng, Y., Chen, B., and Chen, W. Elastoplastic seismic response of RC continuous bridge with foundation-pier dynamic interaction", Advances in Structural Engineering, 18(6), pp. 817{836 (2015). 10. Fatahi, B. and Tabatabaiefar, S.H.R. E_ects of soil plasticity on seismic performance of mid-rise building frames resting on soft soils", Advances in Structural Engineering, 17(10), pp. 1387{1402 (2014). 11. Hosseinzadeh, N. Shake table study of Soil- Foundation-Structure Interaction (SFSI) e_ects in rocking and horizontal motions of the building structures", Proc., 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2010, Including Papers from the 4th International Tsunami Symposium (2010). 12. Nateghi-A, F. and Rezaei-Tabrizi, A. Nonlinear dynamic response of tall buildings considering structuresoil- structure e_ects", Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 22(14), pp. 1075{1082 (2013). 13. Liao, H.J., Liu, J., Zhao, V.G., and Xiao, Z.H. Analysis of soil-structure interaction with _nite element method", Key Engineering Materials, 340{341, pp. 1279{1284 (2007). 14. S_aez, E., Lopez-Caballero, F., and Modaressi- Farahmand-Razavi, A. E_ect of the inelastic dynamic soil-structure interaction on the seismic vulnerability assessment", Structural Safety, 33(1), pp. 51{63 (2011). 15. El Ganainy, H. and El Naggar, M.H. Seismic performance of three-dimensional frame structures with underground stories", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(9), pp. 1249{1261 (2009). 16. Tabatabaiefar, H.R. and Massumi, A. A simpli_ed method to determine seismic responses of reinforced concrete moment resisting building frames under in- uence of soil-structure interaction", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 30(11), pp. 1259{1267 (2010). 17. Gharehbaghi, S., Salajegheh, E., and Khatibinia, M. Evaluation of seismic energy demand of reinforced concrete moment resistant frames considering soilstructure interaction e_ects", Proc., Civil-Comp Proceedings. 18. Khatibinia, M., Javad Fadaee, M., Salajegheh, J., and Salajegheh, E. Seismic reliability assessment of RC structures including soil-structure interaction using wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine", Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 110, pp. 22{33 (2013). 19. Khatibinia, M., Salajegheh, E., Salajegheh, J., and Fadaee, M.J. Reliability-based design optimization of reinforced concrete structures including soil-structure interaction using a discrete gravitational search algorithm and a proposed metamodel", Engineering Optimization, 45(10), pp. 1147{1165 (2013). 20. Masaeli, H., Khoshnoudian, F., and Ziaei, R. Rocking soil-structure systems subjected to near-fault pulses", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 19(3), pp. 461{479 (2015). 21. Mitropoulou, C.C., Kostopanagiotis, C., Kopanos, M., Ioakim, D., and Lagaros, N.D. Inuence of soilstructure interaction on fragility assessment of building structures", Structures, 6, pp. 85{98 (2016). 22. Farzampour, A. and Kamali Asl, A. Seismic hazard assessment for two cities in Eastern Iran", Earthquakes and Structures, 8(3), pp. 681{697 (2015). 23. Kalkan, E. and Kunnath, S.K. E_ects of ing step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings", Earthquake Spectra, 22(2), pp. 367{390 (2006). S. Shahbazi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2264{2282 2281 24. Liu, H., Hung, C., and Cao, J. Relationship between Arias intensity and the responses of reinforced soil retaining walls subjected to near-_eld ground motions", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 111, pp. 160{168 (2018). 25. Sayyadpour, H., Behnamfar, F., and El Naggar, M.H. The near-_eld method: a modi_ed equivalent linear method for dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. Part II: veri_cation and example application", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(8), pp. 2385{2404 (2016). 26. Abell, J.A., Orbovi_c, N., McCallen, D.B., and Jeremic, B. Earthquake soil-structure interaction of nuclear power plants, di_erences in response to 3-D, 3 _ 1-D, and 1-D excitations", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 47(6), pp. 1478{1495 (2018). 27. Lee, J.H. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis in poroelastic soil using mid-point integrated _nite elements and perfectly matched discrete layers", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 108, pp. 160{ 176 (2018). 28. Emami, A.R. and Halabian, A.M. Damage index distributions in RC dual lateral load-resistant multi-story buildings considering SSI e_ects under bidirectional earthquakes", Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, 12(1), 1850004 (2018). 29. Khoshnoudian, F., Ziaei, R., Ayyobi, P., and Paytam, F. E_ects of nonlinear soil-structure interaction on the seismic response of structure-TMD systems subjected to near-_eld earthquakes", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(1), pp. 199{226 (2017). 30. Bybordiani, M. and Ar_c_, Y. E_ectiveness of motion scaling procedures for the seismic assessment of concrete gravity dams for near _eld motions", Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 14(10), pp. 1{16 (2018). 31. Cheng, X., Jing, W., Chen, J., and Zhang, X. Pounding dynamic responses of sliding base-isolated rectangular liquid-storage structure considering soilstructure interactions", Shock and Vibration, 2017, 8594051 (2017). 32. Behnamfar, F. and Sayyadpour, H. The near-_eld method: a modi_ed equivalent linear method for dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. Part I: Theory and methodology", Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(8), pp. 2361{2384 (2016). 33. Johari, A., Javadi, A.A., and Naja_, H. A geneticbased model to predict maximum lateral displacement of retaining wall in granular soil", Scientia Iranica, 23(1), pp. 54{65 (2016). 34. Azizkandi, A.S., Baziar, M.H., Modarresi, M., Salehzadeh, H., and Rasouli, H. Centrifuge modeling of pile-soil-pile interaction considering relative density and toe condition", Scientia Iranica, 21(4), pp. 1330{ 1339 (2014). 35. Tajammolian, H., Khoshnoudian, F., and Bokaeian, V. Seismic responses of asymmetric steel structures isolated with the TCFP subjected to mathematical near-fault pulse models", Smart Structures and Systems, 18(5), pp. 931{953 (2016). 36. Yin, S., Li, Y., Sandberg, M., and Lam, K. The e_ect of building spacing on near-_eld temporal evolution of triple building plumes", Building and Environment, 122, pp. 35{49 (2017). 37. Standard-2800 Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, 4th Ed.", Building and Housing Research Center, Tehran, Iran (in Persian) (2014). 38. ANSI/AISC360-10: Speci_cation for Structural Steel Buildings", American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago-Illinois, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago-Illinois (2010). 39. Jaya, K.P. and Meher Prasad, A. Embedded foundation in layered soil under dynamic excitations", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(6), pp. 485{498 (2002). 40. Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H., and Fenves, G.L. OpenSees", Command Manual, http: //OpenSees.berkeley.edu/wiki/index.php/Command Manual (2014). 41. Zhang, Y., Conte, J.P., Yang, Z., Elgamal, A., Bielak, J., and Acero, G. Two-dimensional nonlinear earthquake response analysis of a bridge-foundationground system", Earthquake Spectra, 24(2), pp. 343{ 386 (2008). 42. Lysmer, J. and Kuhlemeyer, R.L. Finite dynamic model for in_nite media", Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 95(4 EM), pp. 859{877 (1969). 43. Ibarra, L.F., Medina, R.A., and Krawinkler, H. Hysteretic models that incorporate strength and sti_ness deterioration", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(12), pp. 1489{1511 (2005). 44. Lignos, D.G. and Krawinkler, H. Deterioration modeling of steel components in support of collapse prediction of steel moment frames under earthquake loading", Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(11), pp. 1291{1302 (2011). 45. Gupta, A. and Krawinkler, H. Seismic demands for performance evaluation of steel moment resisting frame structures", Report no. 132., John A Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford University (1999). 46. Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J., Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-Hill Companies, New York (1975). 47. Decanini, L., Mollaioli, F., and Saragoni, R. Energy and displacement demands imposed by near-source ground motions", Proc., Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2000). 48. Singh, J.P. Earthquake ground motions: Implications for designing structures and reconciling structural damage", Earthquake Spectra, 1(2), pp. 239{270 (1985). 2282 S. Shahbazi et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2264{2282 49. Alavi, B. and Krawinkler, H. Behavior of momentresisting frame structures subjected to near-fault ground motions", Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 33(6), pp. 687{706 (2004). 50. Chioccarelli, E. Design earthquakes for PBEE in far-_eld and near-source conditions", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Naples Federico II (2010). 51. Naeim, F., The Seismic Design Handbook, Springer, 2nd Edn. (2001).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Economic evaluation of energy-efficient engineering systems
The paper shows the aspects of introducing energy-efficient equipment for engineering systems within the context of productivity enhancement in general. The author as research relevance brings a thesis that each of production members reach after implementing possibility for increasing general effectiveness of business operation. The paper reveals the issues of factor and expert assessments for introducing innovations at the enterprise and economic evaluation of the place of energy-efficient technologies in the general medium of production enterprise modernization. The novelty of the study is an aspect that under conditions of energy products’ cost increase and significant energy intensity of present-day production, the issue of energy conservation and choice of priorities of investment into the project of energy efficiency increase at enterprises is a major concern. Reduction of production cost is one of the most important ways of effective competition and increasing of productiveness of an enterprise in the modern conditions. The authors offer to evaluate the process of energy conservation in a complex way, taking into account all investment consequences: economic, technical, ecological, organizational, commercial, and others. The prospect areas of research: cost-to-use analysis from the introduction of personally developed systems of energy conservation.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21128_60237b27936da04fec4a0b0e09fb473b.pdf
2020-10-01
2283
2300
10.24200/sci.2018.50579.1771
energy efficiency
engineering systems
investment resources
economic evaluation
development project
I.A.
Kapitonov
ivan.kapitonov@outlook.com
1
Higher School of Tariff Regulation, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation
LEAD_AUTHOR
1. Sun, L. Adaptive e_ciency and the evolving diversity of enterprise ownership and governance forms: An overview", In Ownership and Governance of Enterprises: Recent Innovative Developments, pp. 1{35, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2003). 2. Cagno, E., Trianni, A., Spallina, G., and Marchesani, F. Erratum to: Drivers for energy e_ciency and their e_ect on barriers: Empirical evidence from Italian manufacturing enterprises", Energy E_ciency, 10(4), p. 871 (2017). 3. Banalieva, E.R., Santoro, M.D., and Jiang, J.R. Home region focus and technical e_ciency of multinational enterprise", Management International Review, 52(4), pp. 493{518 (2012). 4. Ghaebi, H., Bahadori, M.N., and Saidi, M.H. Economic and environmental evaluations of di_erent operation alternatives of an aquifer thermal energy storage in Tehran, Iran", Scientia Iranica, 24(2), pp. 610{623 (2017). 5. Alkaya, E. and Demirer, G.N. Improving resource e_ciency in surface coating/painting industry: PractiI. A. Kapitonov/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2283{2300 2299 cal experiences from a small-sized enterprise", Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 16(8), pp. 1565{1575 (2014). 6. Alford, B.W.E. Factors in business enterprise and e_ciency", In Depression and Recovery? British Economic Growth 1918{1939, pp. 45{56, Macmillan Education, London, UK (1972). 7. Vernon, R. United states enterprise in the less developed countries: Evaluation of cost and bene_t", In The Gap Between Rich and Poor Nations, pp. 215{244, Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK (1972). 8. Sridhar, K.S. Bene_ts and Costs of Regional Development: Evidence from Ohio's Enterprise Zone Programme", In Incentives for Regional Development: Competition Among Sub-National Governments, pp. 87{114, Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK (2005). 9. Hinds, S., Sanchez, N., and Schap, D. Public enterprise: Retrospective review and prospective theory", In Handbook of Public Finance, pp. 277{300, Springer, Boston, MA, US (2005). 10. Turkenburg, W.C. and Blok, K. Towards a method for assessing long-term opportunities for energy-e_ciency improvement", In Potential for Industrial Energy- E_ciency Improvement in the Long Term, pp. 13{42, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands (2000). 11. Kamu_si_c, M. Economic e_ciency and workers' selfmanagement", In Yugoslav Workers' Selfmanagement, pp. 76{116, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands (1970). 12. Zhou, H. and Zhang, J. From Enterprise insurance" to social insurance", In Towards a Society with Social Protection for All: A Concise History of Social Security Transformation in Modern China, pp. 39{91, Springer, Singapore (2017). 13. Krones, M. Method to identify energy e_ciency measures for factory systems", In A Method to Identify Energy E_ciency Measures for Factory Systems Based on Qualitative Modeling, pp. 71{125, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (2017). 14. Klaue, T. and Veitinger, M. Flexible manufacturing and it's bene_ts for the _nancial situation of an enterprise", In Computer-Based Management of Complex Systems, pp. 119{127, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin (1989). 15. Spencer, D.L. Advantages of mixed enterprise to the public sector", In India, Mixed Enterprise and Western Business: Experiments in Controlled Change for Growth and Pro_t, pp. 175{194, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands (1959). 16. Kaveh, A. and Nasrollahi, A. Charged system search and particle swarm optimization hybridized for optimal design of engineering structures", Scientia Iranica, 21(2), pp. 295{305 (2014). 17. Portella, C.M. de M.A., Cavalcanti, E.H.S., Resende, V.L.D., Silva, F. dos S., and Simoes, M.G.P. de A. Realignment of quality management system for improving the reliability of a biofuel laboratory", Peri_odico Tch^e Qu__mica, 14(27), pp. 75{83 (2017). 18. Hu, Z., Han, X., and Wen, Q. The backbone of DSM implementation: Energy service companies", In Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management, pp. 287{384, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin (2013). 19. Stich, V., Brandenburg, U., and Kropp, S. Benchmarking concept for energy e_ciency in the manufacturing industry: A holistic energy e_ciency model", In Advances in Production Management Systems. Value Networks: Innovation, Technologies, and Management, pp. 390{395, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012). 20. Li, G., Kong, J., Xie, L., and Jiang, G. Energy e_ciency evaluation for iron and steel high energy consumption enterprise", In Information and Automation, pp. 684{690, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin (2011). 21. Hu, Z., Han, X., and Wen, Q. The implementers of demand-side management: Power grid enterprises", In Integrated Resource Strategic Planning and Power Demand-Side Management, pp. 219{286, Springer, Heidelberg Berlin (2013). 22. Thollander, P. and Palm, J. Improving energy ef- _ciency in industrial SMEs", In Improving Energy E_ciency in Industrial Energy Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Barriers, Energy Audits, Energy Management, Policies, and Programs, pp. 15{ 34, Springer, London (2013). 23. Li, M. Analysis of industrial security based on the theoretical frame of industrial economics", In Research on Industrial Security Theory, pp. 171{240, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin (2013). 24. Abolarin, S.M. An economic evaluation of energy management opportunities in a medium scale manufacturing industry in Lagos", International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 14, pp. 97{106 (2015). 25. Procaccianti, G., Fern_andez, H., and Lago, P. Empirical evaluation of two best practices for energy-e_cient software development", The Journal of Systems and Software, 117, pp. 185{198 (2016). 26. Girya, L.V., Sheina, S.G., and Fedyaeva, P.V. The procedure of substantiation of selection of the energye _cient design solutions for residential buildings", International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(8), pp. 19263{19276 (2015). 27. Yu, X.-P. and Liao, X.-F. Study on the multi-target system of building energy e_ciency engineering in China", Advanced Materials Research, 962{965, pp. 1480{1484 (2014).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Cracking effects on chloride diffusion and corrosion initiation in RC structures via finite element simulation
Chloride ion ingress into concrete causes steel corrosion over time, thereby ending the service life of structures. Sometimes, it severely reduces the loading capacity of reinforced concrete and may even cause the sudden destruction of concrete structures. Concrete cracking stems from different factors, such as shrinkage and tensile stress due to thermal loading and under loading. Modeling and estimating chloride ion ingress into cracked concrete over different periods can aid the appropriate determination of structural lifetime and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures. Accordingly, this research investigated the effects of the width and depth of concrete cracks on the rate of chloride ion diffusion and rebar corrosion. To this end, different concrete specimens characterized by various cracking conditions were modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics. Analytical results showed that the critical crack that reflected the highest extent of chloride ingress into a specific region at different times was not necessarily the defect with the largest thickness and depth. This finding highlights the importance of investigating crack behavior in the appropriate estimation of structural service life. Nevertheless, over time, considerably wide and deep cracks may ultimately be a reflection of substantial rate of ingress.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21140_91ebb76fa06e6de1ff4477ad2789d967.pdf
2020-10-01
2301
2315
10.24200/sci.2018.50496.1725
Reinforced concrete
Crack width
Crack depth
Chloride ingress
COMSOL Multiphysics
M.
Ghanooni-bagha
ghanoonibagha@iauet.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, P.O. Box 18735-136, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
M. A.
Shayanfar
shayanfar@iust.ac.ir
2
The Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 16765-163, Iran.
AUTHOR
S.M.H.
Farnia
s_farnia@civileng.iust.ac.ir
3
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 16765-163, Iran.
AUTHOR
1. Neville, A.M., Properties of Concrete, Fourth and Final Edition Standards, Prentice-Hall, Incorporated, Englewood Cli_s, NJ USA (1996). 2. MacGregor, J.G., Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design, Prentice-Hall, Incorporated, Englewood Cli_s, NJ USA (1992). 3. Dhinakaran, G. and Sreekanth, B. Physical, mechanical, and durability properties of ternary blend concrete", Scientia Iranica, 25(5), pp. 2440{2450 (2018). 4. Tuutti, K. Service life of structures with regard to corrosion of embedded steel", Special Publication, 65, pp. 223{236 (1980). 5. Priyanka, C., Vijayalakshmi, B., Nagavalli, M., and Dhinakaran, G. Strength and durability studies on high volume readymade ultra_ne slag based high strength concrete", Scientia Iranica, 26(5), pp. 2624{ 2632 (2019). 2314 M. Ghanooni-Bagha et al./Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2301{2315 6. Shayanfar, M.A., Barkhordari, M.A., and Ghanooni- Bagha, M. E_ect of longitudinal rebar corrosion on the compressive strength reduction of concrete in reinforced concrete structure", Advances in Structural Engineering, 19(6), pp. 897{907 (2016). 7. Shayanfar, M.A., Barkhordari, M.A., and Ghanooni- Bagha, M. Probability calculation of rebars corrosion in reinforced concrete using css algorithms", Journal of Central South University, 22(8), pp. 3141{3150 (2015). 8. Ghanooni-Bagha, M., Shayanfar, M.A., Shirzadi- Javid, A.A., and Ziaadiny, H. Corrosion-induced reduction in compressive strength of self-compacting concretes containing mineral admixtures", Construction and Building Materials, 113(1), pp. 221{228 (2016). 9. Ghanooni-Bagha, M., Shayanfar, M.A., Reza-zadeh, O., and Zabihi-Samani, M. The e_ect of materials on the reliability of reinforced concrete beams in normal and intense corrosions", Journal of Eksploatacja I Niezawodnosc, 19(3), pp. 393{402 (2017). 10. Rahmani, K., Ghaemian, M., and Hosseini, A. Experimental study of the e_ect of water to cement ratio on mechanical and durability properties of nano-silica concretes with polypropylene _bers", Scientia Iranica, 26(5), pp. 2712{2722 (2018). 11. Ismail, M., Toumi, A., Fran_cois, R., and Gagn_e, R. E_ect of crack opening on the local di_usion of chloride in cracked mortar samples", Cement and Concrete Research, 38(8), pp. 1106{1111 (2008). 12. Ismail, M., Toumi, A., Francois, R., and Gagn_e, R. E_ect of crack opening on the local di_usion of chloride in inert materials", Cement and Concrete Research, 34(4), pp. 711{716 (2004). 13. Shayanfar, M.A., Barkhordari, M.A., and Ghanooni- Bagha, M. Estimation of corrosion occurrence in RC structure using reliability based PSO optimization", Periodica Polytechnica, Civil Engineering, 59(4), pp. 531{543 (2015). 14. Andrade, C., Alonso, C., and Molina, F.J. Cover cracking as a function of bar corrosion: Part IExperimental test", Materials and structures, 26(8), pp. 453{464 (1993). 15. Suryavanshi, A.K., Swamy, R.N., and Cardew, G.E. Estimation of di_usion coe_cients for chloride ion penetration into structural concrete", Materials Journal, 99(5), pp. 441{449 (2002). 16. Aldea, C.M., Shah, S.P., and Karr, A. E_ect of cracking on water and chloride permeability of concrete", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 11(3), pp. 181{187 (1999). 17. Conciatori, D., Sadouki, H., and Bruhwiler, E. Capillary suction and di_usion model for chloride ingress into concrete", Cement and Concrete Research, 38(12), pp. 1401{1408 (2008). 18. Djerbi, A., Bonnet, S., Khelidj, A., and Baroghel- Bouny, V. Inuence of traversing crack on chloride di_usion into concrete", Cement and Concrete Research, 38(6), pp. 877{883 (2008). 19. Jang, S.Y., Kim, B.S., and Oh, B.H. E_ect of crack width on chloride di_usion coe_cients of concrete by steady-state migration tests", Cement and Concrete Research, 41(1), pp. 9{19 (2011). 20. Wang, L. and Ueda, T. Mesoscale modelling of the chloride di_usion in cracks and cracked concrete", Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 9(3), pp. 241{249 (2011). 21. Marsavina, L., Audenaert, K., De Schutter, G., Faur, N., and Marsavina, D. Experimental and numerical determination of the chloride penetration in cracked concrete", Construction and Building Materials, 23(1), pp. 264{274 (2009). 22. Kato, E., Kato, Y., and Uomoto, T. Development of simulation model of chloride ion transportation in cracked concrete", Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 3(1), pp. 85{94 (2005). 23. Otieno, M., Beushausen, H., and Alexander, M. Chloride-induced corrosion of steel in cracked concrete-Part I: Experimental studies under accelerated and natural marine environments", Cement and Concrete Research, 79, pp. 373{385 (2016). 24. Otieno, M., Beushausen, H., and Alexander, M. Chloride-induced corrosion of steel in cracked concrete-Part II: Corrosion rate prediction models", Cement and Concrete Research, 79, pp. 386{394 (2016). 25. Wang, J., Basheer, P.M., Nanukuttan, S.V., Long, A.E., and Bai, Y. Inuence of service loading and the resulting micro-cracks on chloride resistance of concrete", Construction and Building Materials, 108, pp. 56{66 (2016). 26. Leung, C.K. and Hou, D. Numerical simulation of chloride-induced corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures with cracks", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 27(3), p. 04014122 (2014). 27. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Di_usion, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England (1979). 28. Poulsen, E. and Mejlbro, L., Di_usion of Chloride in Concrete: Theory and Application, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2010). 29. Bentz, D.P., Garboczi, E.J., Lu, Y., Martys, N., Sakulich, A.R., and Weiss, W.J. Modeling of the inuence of transverse cracking on chloride penetration into concrete", Cement and Concrete Composites, 38, pp. 65{74 (2013). 30. Comsol Multiphysics. See Wikipedia, Bluebook, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COMSOL Multiphysics (History), Navier-Stokes equations", Cyclopedia (2016). 31. Jin, W.L., Yan, Y.D., and Wang, H.L. Chloride di_usion in the cracked concrete", Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures-Assessment, Durability, Monitoring and Retro_tting of Concrete Structures, pp. 880{886 (2010).
1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Seismic performance of EBFs equipped with an innovative shape memory alloy damper
Given their unique characteristics, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) have significant potential for use in different areas of engineering. The phase shift characteristics of these alloys allow them to memorize a certain shape, and if deformed, revert back to that shape through a thermal process. Given the vast potentials of SMAs, they can be utilized to address the limitation of conventional eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) with vertical links in order to achieve better residual and maximum interstory drifts. This paper presents a vibration control system equipped with SMAs to achieve improved operational domain. The Compared to conventional EBFs, the proposed system named recentering damping device (RDD) is easy to fabricate and implement and allows for the redesign of fuse members. A numerical analysis is performed for a 9-story steel frame building using nonlinear analysis program OpenSees to evaluate the system performance. Results of time history analysis demonstrate better self-centering behavior and lower residual interstory drifts of the proposed system as compared to EBF.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21145_9f70c0df45aad7fc28a4c965b1e96fe2.pdf
2020-10-01
2316
2325
10.24200/sci.2018.50990.1955
Shape memory alloys
damper
residual drift
eccentrically braced frames
N.
Mirzai
nmirzai@ut.ac.ir
1
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, P.O. Box 4563-11155, Iran.
AUTHOR
R.
Attarnejad
attarnjd@ut.ac.ir
2
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, P.O. Box 4563-11155, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
1. Lian, M. and Su, M. Seismic performance of highstrength steel fabricated eccentrically braced frame with vertical shear link", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 137, pp. 262{285 (2017). 2. Chegeni, B. and Mohebkhah, A. Rotation capacity improvement of long link beams in eccentrically braced frames", Scientia Iranica, 21(3), pp. 516{524 (2014). 3. Pourzeynali, S. and Shakeri, A. A comparative study on the ductility and energy dissipation capacity of SMRF and V-EBF systems", Scientia Iranica, 22(4), pp. 1470{1480 (2015). 4. Aristizabal{Ochoa, J.D. Disposable knee bracing: Improvement in seismic design of steel frames", Journal of Structural Engineering, United States, 112(7), pp. 1544{1552 (1986). 5. Ghobarah, A. and Abou Elfath, H. Rehabilitation of a reinforced concrete frame using eccentric steel bracing", Engineering Structures, 23(7), pp. 745{755 (2001). 6. Vetr, M.G., Ghamari, A., and Bouwkamp, J. Investigating the nonlinear behavior of eccentrically braced frame with vertical shear links (V{EBF)", Journal of Building Engineering, 10, pp. 47{59 (2017). 7. Kazemzadeh, A. and Topkaya, C. A review of research on steel eccentrically braced frames", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 128, pp. 53{73 (2017). 8. Chang, W.S. and Araki, Y. Use of shape-memory alloys in construction: A critical review", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering, 169(2), pp. 87{95 (2016). 9. Araki, Y., Maekawa, N., Shrestha, K.C., Yamakawa, M., Koetaka, Y., Omori, T., and Kainuma, R. Fea2324 N.M. Mirzai and R. Attarnejad/Scientia Iranica, Transactions A: Civil Engineering 27 (2020) 2316{2325 sibility of tension braces using Cu{Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars", Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 21(10), pp. 1304{1315 (2014). 10. Fanaiea, N. and Monfared, M.N. Cyclic behavior of extended end-plate connections with shape memory alloy bolts", Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 60(3), pp. 507{527 (2016). 11. Hu, J.W., Smart Connection Systems: Design and Seismic Analysis, CRC Press (2015). 12. Hu, J.W. Seismic performance evaluations and analyses for composite moment frames with smart SMA PRCFT connections", PhD Thesis, Georgia Tech. (2008). 13. Iwamoto, T. and Cao, B. A review on experimental investigations of rate sensitivity of deformation behavior in Fe-based shape memory alloys", Advanced Structured Materials, 73, pp. 31{42 (2017). 14. Kari, A., Ghassemieh, M., and Abolmaali, S.A. A new dual bracing system for improving the seismic behavior of steel structures", Smart Materials and Structures, 20(12), pp. 1{14 (2011). 15. Miller, D.J., Fahnestock, L.A., and Eatherton, M.R. Development and experimental validation of a nickeltitanium shape memory alloy self-centering bucklingrestrained brace", Engineering Structures, 40, pp. 288{ 298 (2012). 16. Moradi, S., Alam, M.S., and Asgarian, B. Incremental dynamic analysis of steel frames equipped with NiTi shape memory alloy braces", Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 23(18), pp. 1406{1425 (2014). 17. Rofooei, F.R. and Yadegari Farzaneh, A. Numerical study of an innovative SMA based beam-column connection in reducing the seismic response of steel MRF structures", Scientia Iranica, 23(5), pp. 2033{ 2043 (2016). 18. Sayyaadi, H., Zakerzadeh, M.R., and Salehi, H. A comparative analysis of some one-dimensional shape memory alloy constitutive models based on experimental tests", Scientia Iranica, 19(2), pp. 249{257 (2012). 19. Silwal, B., Michael, R.J., and Ozbulut, O.E. A superelastic viscous damper for enhanced seismic performance of steel moment frames", Engineering Structures, 105, pp. 152{164 (2015). 20. Speicher, M.S., DesRoches, R., and Leon, R.T. Experimental results of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA)-based recentering beam-column connection", Engineering Structures, 33(9), pp. 2448{2457 (2011). 21. Speicher, M.S., DesRoches, R., and Leon, R.T. Investigation of an articulated quadrilateral bracing system utilizing shape memory alloys", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 130, pp. 65{78 (2017). 22. Walter Yang, C.S., DesRoches, R., and Leon, R.T. Design and analysis of braced frames with shape memory alloy and energy-absorbing hybrid devices", Engineering Structures, 32(2), pp. 498{507 (2010). 23. Qiu, C., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Qu, B., Hou, H., and Tian, L. Seismic performance of Concentrically Braced Frames with non-buckling braces: A comparative study", Engineering Structures, 154, pp. 93{102 (2018). 24. Ren, W., Li, H., and Song, G. 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1
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
An exact solution to the problems of flexo-poroelastic structures rested on elastic beds acted upon by moving loads
This paper aims to examine flexural vibrations of fully saturated poroelastic structureson an elastic bed subjected to moving point loads via an analytical solution. Using aflexural beam model in conjunction with the Biot’s poro-elasticity theory, the equationsof motion of the porous structure are derived. Using assumed mode method and Laplacetransform, the explicit expressions of displacement and pore pressure are obtained carefully.For a particular case, the predicted results are also compared with those of another workand a reasonably good agreement is achieved. The influences of the moving load velocity,permeability ratio, transverse stiffness of the foundation, viscosity of the pore fluid, andporosity on the maximum elasto-dynamic fields and pore pressure are conclusively discussed.The velocity pertinent to the maximum possible dynamic response is graphically determinedand the roles of influential parameters on this crucial factor are displayed. The present modelcould be easily extended to multi-layered poroelastic structures under moving loads.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_21245_a8def2f958292e368c69f75737d77d3f.pdf
2020-10-01
2326
2341
10.24200/sci.2019.51365.2135
Poroelastic beam-like structures
Dynamical analysis
Moving loads
Laplace transform method
Analytical approach
A.
Nikkhoo
nikkhoo@usc.ac.ir
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
R.
Tafakor
r.tafakor@usc.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
M.
Mofid
mofid@sharif.edu
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
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1