eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
579
603
1888
A synopsis about the effect of metakaolin on the durability of Portland cement – An overview
Alaa M. Rashad
alaarashad@yahoo.com
1
Building Materials Research and Quality Control Institute, Housing & Building National Research Center, HBRC, Cairo, Egypt
Metakaolin (MK) produced by suitable thermal treatment of either kaolin or paper sludge. MK can be used to modify some properties of Portland cement (PC) system. Many authors studied the effects blended PC with MK on durability characteristics. The current investigation focuses on, to review, the effect of MK on the durability of blended PC. A review on resistance of abrasion, fire, freeze-thaw, seawater, chloride-ion diffusion, carbonation, acid, sulfate, chloride, corrosion, creep, shrinkage, alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and near surface is presented.This overview can be considered as a short guide for Civil Engineers.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1888_4275c00e87e752c2c1d69441d00ac885.pdf
Portland cement
Fire resistance
Freeze-thaw resistance
chloride-ion diffusion
chemical resistance
carbonation resistance
Durability
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
604
614
1889
Nonlinear Behavior of Concrete End Diaphragms in Straight Slab-Girder Bridges
Himan Hojat Jalali
1
Shervin Maleki
smaleki@sharif.edu
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9313, Iran
Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9313, Iran
The seismic behavior of concrete end diaphragms of bridges has not been studied before and there are no significant design provisions available. According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the end diaphragms being part of the seismic load path have to remain elastic under the prescribed seismic design forces, regardless of the type of bearings used. In this paper, using a three-dimensional finite element model and nonlinear time history analyses the behavior of reinforced concrete end diaphragms in straight single-span slab-girder bridges has been investigated. The results are compared to AASHTO’s design provisions. It is concluded that for slab-girder concrete bridges the concrete diaphragms remain elastic under design earthquake loading. It is also concluded that AASHTO’s recommended seismic design force for end diaphragms could be unsafe in most cases.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1889_5ff10acc707976d02216670833ce1e68.pdf
Bridge
Seismic analysis
Reinforced concrete
diaphragms
elastomeric bearing
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
615
628
1890
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Slabs Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Cindrawaty Lesmana
1
Hsuan-Teh Hu
hthu@mail.ncku.edu.tw
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung 40164, Indonesia
Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Strengthening reinforced concrete members by bonding fiber reinforced plastics on the tension face has become viable alternative to address strength deficiency problems. This paper investigates rectangular composite slabs subjected to distributed load using Abaqus finite element software. A parametric study using appropriate constitutive models is generated to stimulate the nonlinear material behavior of reinforced concrete and FRP. The numerical analysis examines the behavior and maximum capacity of composite slabs. The paper presents the finite element analysis results for concrete slabs strengthened with FRP material. The proposed fitted equation is applicable in preliminary investigation for engineering applications.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1890_959120f76f5cfdea707080eac7eca855.pdf
Finite element analysis (FEA)
Reinforced concrete
Laminates
Slab
Numerical analysis
Strengthened
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
629
638
1891
Pile head displacements with different cross sectional shapes under lateral loading and unloading in granular soils
Pejman Vahabkashi
vahabkashi@aut.ac.ir
1
Alireza Rahai
rahai@aut.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Amir Kabir University of Technology, No. 209, Faculty of Civil Eng., 424, Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran
Department of Civil Engineering, Amir Kabir University of Technology, No. 611, Faculty of Civil Eng., 424, Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran
Piles in structures’ foundations, which are used to load transmission from main structure to bed, are generally subjected to lateral loads. In order to study the effect of concrete pile geometry on its structural behavior, several models with different shapes and dimensions were selected and analyzed assuming the nonlinear behavior for soil. The behavior of pile models were studied, evaluated, and tabulated using numerical analysis in different conditions such as: changes in pile geometry and shape and soil properties. Therefore, the displacements of piles` head situated in granular soil with different compaction levels under a lateral load were studied in loading and unloading cycles. The dissipated energy was calculated based on pile head displacements in different load steps in the first and second cycles of loading. The "performance index" is defined as the ratio of dissipated energy to the maximum pile head displacement to compare these two factors effect on different pile models' behavior concurrently. It was observed that piles with rectangular cross sections and smaller width, have the maximum dissipation of energy and the minimum displacement occurs in dense soil.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1891_a928078ada8298de67c4e748a3437877.pdf
Soil–pile interaction
Lateral load
Loading and unloading
Pile head displacements
Cross sectional shapes
Dissipated Energy
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
639
649
1892
Development of Nonlinear Transfer Matrix Method for Inelastic Analyses of Beams
Minho Kwon
1
Minho Kwon
kwonm@gnu.ac.kr
2
Jinsup Kim
3
Jinsup Kim
jskim0330@gmail.com
4
Hyunsu Seo
5
Suchart Limkatanyu
6
Dept. of Civil Engineering, ERI, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Dept. of Civil Engineering, ERI, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Dept. of Civil Engineering, ERI, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Dept. of Civil Engineering, ERI, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Dept. of Civil Engineering, ERI, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
The objective of this study is to develop a material-nonlinear-analysis algorithm based on the transfer matrix method (TMM). This newly developed algorithm can be used to perform nonlinear analyses of continuous beam systems. The nonlinear transfer matrix is derived from the general frame stiffness matrix and the Gauss-Lobatto integration scheme is employed for numerical integration. In the TMM, the system equation has a constant number of system unknowns regardless of the total degree-of-freedom number in the structure and the system response (either linear or nonlinear). As a result, TMM can be used efficiently both for linear and nonlinear structural analyses. In this study, a secant nonlinear algorithm required in nonlinear TMM is employed due to its good compromise between the convergence rate and numerical stability. To verify accuracy and efficiency of the developed TMM, four numerical examples are selected and analyzed. The analysis results are compared with those obtained by the highly accurate flexibility-based frame model in terms of global and local responses.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1892_5c0f105cfda9d22aef38db36c160080f.pdf
Material Nonlinear
stiffness matrix
TMM (Transfer Matrix Method)
Nonlinear Analysis
Beam Model
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
650
667
1893
Bi-Level Optimization of Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problems in Hydropower Station Construction under Uncertainty
Zhe Zhang
1
Jiuping Xu
2
Hui Yang
3
Yang Wang
4
School Economics & Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, P. R. CHINA
bState Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University; Uncertainty Decision-Making Laboratory, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, P. R. CHINA
School Economics & Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, P. R. CHINA
National Key Laboratory of Air Traffic Control Automation System Technology, Sichuan University; College of Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, P. R. CHINA
The aim of this paper is to deal with the resource-constrained multiple project scheduling problems (RCMPSP), which consider the complex hierarchical organization structure and fuzzy random environment in the decision making process. A bi-level multiobjective RCMPSP model with fuzzy random coecients is presented by taking into account the strategy and process in the practical RCMPSP. In the model, the project director is considered as the leader in the upper level, who aims to minimize total tardiness penalty of all sub-projects and the consumption of resources. Meanwhile, the sub-project manager is the follower in the lower level, regards the target to minimize the duration of each sub-project. To deal with the uncertainties, the fuzzy random parameters are transformed into the trapezoidal fuzzy variables first, which are de-fuzzified by the expected value index subsequently. A multiobjective bi-level adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOBL-APSO) is designed as the solution method to solve the model. The results and analysis of a case study are presented to highlight the practicality and eciency of the proposed model and algorithm.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1893_f428d0ac21a21ce17aa9fe0c0318200e.pdf
Bi-level Programming
fuzzy random variables
resource-constrained scheduling problem
multiple projects
Multi-objective optimization
particle swarm optimization
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
668
678
1894
Integrating system dynamics and fuzzy bargaining for quantitative risk allocation in construction projects
Farnad Nasirzadeh
f.nasirzadeh@gmail.com
1
Mehdi Rouhparvar
mehdi.rouhparvar@gmail.com
2
Hamed Mazandarani Zadeh
hzadeh@iust.ac.ir
3
Mahdi Rezaie
mahdirezaie@gmail.com
4
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Project Management and Construction, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Dept. of Technical- Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Quantitative approaches to risk allocation have been developed to overcome the limitation of qualitative approaches and to determine how the responsibility of risk should be shared between contracting parties. This paper integrates a system dynamics simulation scheme with fuzzy bargaining game theory for quantitative risk allocation. The behaviour of contracting parties in the quantitative risk allocation negotiation process is modelled as players' behaviour in a game. A system dynamics based model is employed to determine the contractor and client costs (players' payoffs)at different percentages of risk allocation. Having determined the players' payoffs, the common interval between the players' acceptable risk allocation percentages is determined. The bargaining process is then performed between two parties accounting for the common interval and a desirable and equitable percentage of risk allocation is determined.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1894_b8188ecf7ce83639dfde357bfebf822f.pdf
Quantitative risk allocation
Bargaining game theory
System Dynamics
Fuzzy logic
Negotiation
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
679
698
1895
Measuring wave velocity, damping and stress-strain behaviors of geo-materials using GAP-SENSOR
A. Aghaei Araei
1
A. Aghaei Araei
xmszgnzq@scientiaunknown.non
2
I. Towhata
3
S. Hashemi Tabatabaei
cokbmyoj@scientiaunknown.non
4
H.R. Razeghi
5
S. Hashemi Tabatabaei
6
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Road, Housing and Urban Development (BHRC), Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1696, Iran
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Road, Housing and Urban Development (BHRC), Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1696, Iran
Geotechnical Engineering Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, P.O. Box 113-8656, Japan
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Road, Housing and Urban Development (BHRC), Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1696, Iran
School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, P.O. Box 16765-163, Iran
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Road, Housing and Urban Development (BHRC), Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1696, Iran
A triaxial testing system is described for measuring the wave velocity, stiness, damping and stress-strain behavior of layered granular materials and rock specimens under impact, cyclic and monotonic loading. The system is equipped with high-frequency GAPSENSORs (GSs) in front of target plates connected on the side of a specimen surface to measure wave velocity, axial and radial deformations locally, LDTs to measure axial and radial deformations locally, and a load cell. Based on the rst arrival of compressional wave of the deformation time-histories under impact loading, the pulse velocity is evaluated. In addition, using a reduced deformation amplitude technique at dierent elevations of the specimen, damping ratio is calculated. Results indicate that measurement of the wave velocity and damping ratio using low noise level GSs is a simple, nondestructive and reproducible method. Comparing the results of small strain shear modulus and damping ratio using local axial and radial strains measured by LDTs and GSs in the cyclic loading, with those of the proposed method, the high precision of the used innovative method is conrmed. Using this system, a continuous stress-strain relation for a strain range of 0.0001% to several % can be obtained fro a single test using a single specimen.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1895_7c7861852fad58ad59e2bbd370de3c6e.pdf
Wave velocity
modulus
damping
Monotonic
Dacite
Mudstone
Tire chips
Toyoura
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
699
708
1896
Shear-Torsion Interaction of RC Beams Strengthened with FRP Sheets
Sayed Behzad Talaeitaba
talaeetaba@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
Davood Mostofinejad
dmostofi@cc.iut.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran
Civil Eng. Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran
One of the most common options for structural strengthening and rehabilitation is the use of FRP sheets for shear-torsion strengthening of reinforced concrete beams (RCBs). Their widespread use owes much to their ease of application in addition to many other advantages. The availability of technical references and construction codes today make it easy to calculate the shear and torsion capacities of strengthened beams. Practically, however, it is the combined shear and torsion rather than pure torsion that develops in beams. The present article investigates the use of FRP sheets in strengthening RC beams. For the purposes of this study, 14 RC beams were used that were classified into three different sets: one set consisted of 5 non-strengthened (plain) beams and two sets (one with 5 and the other with 4 beams) consisted of RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets in two different strengthening patterns. The shear-torsion interaction curves were derived for them by loading the beams under a variety of eccentricities ranging from 0 (pure shear) to infinity (pure torsion). The supports were constructed with flexure and torsion rigidity. Laboratory tests revealed that the shear-torsion interaction curves for all the three sets of beams were close to straight lines.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1896_64de19568ca0752a715726a78e3e90e6.pdf
Interaction curve
reinforced concrete beams
Combined shear-torsion
FRP sheets
Strengthening
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
709
716
1897
Extent of riprap layerwith different stone sizes around rectangular bridge piers with or without an attached collar
M. Karimaee Tabarestani
1
A. R. Zarrati
zarrati@aut.ac.ir
2
M. B. Mashahir
3
E. Mokallaf
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
In the present study, extent of riprap layer with different sizes around bridge piers is investigated. Rectangular piers with or without an attached protective collar aligned with the flow and skewed at different angles are tested. The optimal configurations of riprap extent for each pier condition with different sizes are determined. Experiments showed that in case of aligned rectangular pier without a collar only 8% of the area around the pier is critical and the remaining 92% area can be protected with about 60% smaller riprap stones. As the skew angle of the pier increases up to 20o, the critical area increases up to 23% of the riprap extent. In case of protected pier with collar, the collar prevents the critical region around the pier in aligned and 5o skewed pier. However, by increasing the flow attack angle up to 20o, only a small area up to 30% in the riprap extent around the collar is critical and the remaining area can be placed with 40% smaller riprap size. Finally, the design algorithm for riprap extent with different sizes is presented.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1897_67346995878c5820efbfbf8a625b086d.pdf
Local scour
Rectangular bridge pier
Critical region
Riprap extent
Collar
Riprap sizing
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
717
727
1898
Multi objective optimization of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells using optimality criteria method
Ghazaleh Eslami
1
Mohammad Z. Kabir
mzkabir@aut.ac.ir
2
Department of Civil Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Civil Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
A multi objective optimality criteria (OC) is used to obtain optimum design of metal cylindrical shells under combined external loading. The objectives are to maximize the axial and hoop stiffness and minimize the mass of stiffened cylinders subject to the constraints including functions of weight and buckling load in such a way that the stiffened shell has no increase in the weight and no decrease in the buckling load with respect to the initial unstiffened shell. The optimization process contains six design variables including shell thickness, number of circular ring stiffeners, number of longitudinal stringer stiffeners, height of ring stiffeners, width of ring stiffeners, and longitudinal stiffeners eccentricity from shell's centerline. In analytical solution, the Rayleigh–Ritz energy procedure is applied and the ring stiffeners are treated as discrete elements. The shapes of the ring and stringer stiffeners are assumed as rectangular and Z, respectively. The shell is subjected to the uniform axial and non-constant external pressure, simultaneously. The longitudinal stringers are placed in equal spacing, whereas, the rings can be placed in unequal space due to non-constant of external pressure over the cylinder length. The results show that the iteration numbers depends on the ring stiffener space states.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1898_71597b462f026dcbeecb1c0dd4b8c4a7.pdf
Multi objective optimization
Stiffened cylindrical shell
Optimality criteria
ring stiffeners
stringers stiffeners
eng
Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica
1026-3098
2345-3605
2015-06-01
22
3
728
741
1899
A seismic slope stability probabilistic model based on Bishop's method using analytical approach
A. Johari
johari@sutech.ac.ir
1
S. Mousavi
2
A. Hooshmand nejad
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Probabilistic seismic slope stability analysis provides a tool for considering uncertainty of the soil parameters and earthquake characteristics. In this paper, the Jointly Distributed Random Variables (JDRV) method is used as an analytical method to develop a probabilistic model of seismic slope stability based on Bishop's method. The selected stochastic parameters are internal friction angle, cohesion and unit weight of soil, which are modeled using a truncated normal probability density function (pdf) and the horizontal seismic coefficient which is considered to have a truncated exponential probability density function. Comparison of the probability density functions of slope safety factor with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCs) indicates superior performance of the proposed approach. However, the required time to reach the same probability of failure is greater for the MCs than the JDRV method. It is shown that internal friction angle is the most influential parameter in the slope stability analysis of finite slopes. To assess the effect of seismic loading, the slope stability reliability analysis is made based on total stresses without seismic loading and with seismic loading. As a result two probabilistic models are proposed.
http://scientiairanica.sharif.edu/article_1899_5597f0b014b5b80bfc2f11d556f93c5d.pdf
Reliability
Jointly distributed random variables method
Monte Carlo simulation
Seismic slope stability
Limit equilibrium method